Performance of a welding flux is decided by the physical and chemical properties of its constituents. The flux selected should show a good welding behavior and the required weld bead geometry. The mechanical properties of a joint are not only decided by its composition but these also depends on bead geometry, dimensions and physico-chemical properties of fluxes. These properties include surface tension, viscosity, heat capacity, thermal coefficients of expansion, grain size etc. These properties of fluxes primarily affect the flux behavior, bead shape and size, welding speed, current carrying capacity, protection of molten metal, arc stability, slag detachability, capillarity, surface tension and viscosity. Various constituents of a welding flux have major influence on the performance of welding processes and weld bead dimensions. We need to understand the physical properties and behavior of fluxes during submerged arc welding. The influence of specific flux additions on arc stability, viscosity, capillarity, slag detachability and weld bead shape need to be better characterized. It can be inferred that we cannot obtain the weld of desired geometry and composition until we consider the physico-chemical characteristics of flux like slag viscosity, surface tension, arc stability and slag detachability, capillarity and weld penetration. So, while designing the flux or during selection of welding process parameters the above characteristics should be carefully controlled or selected.
Key words: Submerged arc welding, bead width, reinforcement, weld penetration, bead morphology.
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