Journal of
Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Lab. Diagn.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2618
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMLD
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 60

Full Length Research Paper

Criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: A review

Ogbu I. S. I
  • Ogbu I. S. I
  • Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Evangel University, Akaeze, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 22 December 2022
  •  Accepted: 20 January 2023
  •  Published: 28 February 2023


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) consists of multiple, interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin that appear to directly promote the development of cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes (T2D). It confers 2-fold increase in relative risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular events and 5-fold increase in risk for development of T2D as compared with people without the syndrome. T2D is one of the most prevalent and serious metabolic diseases in the world, and among middle-aged men CHD is still the leading cause of mortality in western countries. Definitions of MetS vary widely with experts resulting in inconsistent diagnosis and inappropriate management. Consistent definition of the MetS and its feature would facilitate research into its causes and may facilitate its treatment. This review made a critical assessment of the criteria and suggested a way forward. Literature search between 2000 and 2022 was conducted and 60 publications including the author’s works were evaluated. From the review, it was established that both IR and obesity can give rise to all the risk factors and to each other. Therefore, if efforts are made to streamline the diagnosis of IR and obesity, there may not be need for the other varying specifications and criteria of universal application could emerge.

Key words: Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance syndrome, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinaemia, dislipidaemia, obesity, risk factors.


NCEP, National Cholesterol Education Programme; EGIR, European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance; IDF, International Diabetes Federation; AACE, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; MetS, metabolic syndrome; T2D, type 2 diabetes; CHD, coronary heart Disease; NNMT, nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase; NCEP/ATP 111, National Cholesterol Education Programme/Adult Treatment Panel 111; NHLBI, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; IR, insulin resistance; AHA, American Heart Association; HDLC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; WHR, waist hip ratio; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; BMI, body mass index; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; WC, waist circumference; CEPT, cholesterol ester transfer protein; CVD, cardiovascular disease; TG, triglyceride.