Tungiasis exists worldwide with varying degrees of incidence and prevalence. The aim of this paper was to review the existing literature concerning Tungiasis. Tungiasis has been shown to be a public health concern for resource-poor rural communities in developing countries such as Nigeria, Kenya, Cameroon, Trinidad, Tobago, and Brazil, where its prevalence has been known to reach 50%. As a literatures reviewed, poor hygienic conditions, increased poverty levels, prolonged dry season and fear of stigmatization are among the most important risk factors, severely influencing the persistence of the tungiasis. The presence of the jigger in the skin causes itching sensation, and in a severe cases causes loss of nails, formation of ulcers, inflammation, suppuration, chronic lymphedema, sepsis and could be death. Jigger infestation affects the education of children as they might be unable to walk to school, write properly, or participate in regular learning activities. Tungiasis is likely to increase and cause livelihood of communities in developing countries. Thus, new prevention and control approaches should be designed through multi-interdisciplinary team to mitigate the persistence of the disease, particularly in vulnerable communities.
Key words: Jiggers fleas, poverty, risk factors, school children.