Bovine trypanosomiasis is a major threat to the livestock sector in Cameroon. A preliminary study of the disease and of its vectors was carried out between February and May 2017 in the SODEPA Ranch of Ndokayo, located in the Bétaré-Oya Sub Division of the Lom and Djerem Division in East Cameroon. The main objective of this work was to determine the parasitological prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis as well as to assess the abundance and diversity of its vectors in different sites in two seasons. In order to realise the aforementioned objective, a parasitological survey was carried out in the late dry season, in which blood was collected through the jugular vein of 390 cattle. Haematocrit evaluation and parasitological screening for trypanosomes was done using the buffy coat technique (BCT). An entomological prospection was carried out in the late dry season and early rainy season using two unbaited trapping systems notably, Nzi (n=3) and Vavoua (n=3) pitched in three sites (overnight parks, gallery forests and river banks). The overall bovine trypanosomosis prevalence was 2.82% and species specific prevalence included: Trypanosoma congolense (63.6%), Trypanosoma brucei (18.2%) and mixed species infections (T. congolense + T. brucei and T. brucei + Trypanosoma vivax) (18.2%). Entomologically, six genera were identified: Stomoxys, Ancala, Tabanus, Chrysops, Hematopota and Glossina. The overall trap apparent density (TAD) was 3.92 flies/trap/day, with a higher TAD in early rainy season than in the late dry season. Diversity index was higher in the dry season (1.87) than in the rainy season (0.96). This study is a preliminary contribution to the knowledge of the current situation of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the Ndokayo ranch. This will provide baseline information for future trypanosomiasis and vectors control activities in the East region of Cameroon.
Keywords: Trypanosomiasis, prevalence, vectors, Ndokayo