Rice paddy soils are complex ecosystems characterized by metabolic processes responsible for the production and emissions of different greenhouse gasses. The oxic and anoxic conditions of the rice paddy soil have been changed continuously through alternative cycles of flooding and drainage which might be responsible for different microbial community structure and their impact on greenhouse gasses. The changes in the microbial community have been considered to involve in improving soil properties including nutrition, texture, pH, temperature and water contents. Flooded rice soils have been considered as a major source of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. By controlling the microbial community structure, we can control the rice productivity and subsequently the emission of greenhouse gasses. This review represents the current knowledge about the importance of microbial community structure and their function in rice paddies. The microbial community structure in paddy soils has been determined using different molecular and biochemical techniques. Many factors have been involved to affect the soil microbial activities including temperature, soil pH, and fertilizers etc. These factors would be significantly helpful to understand the effect of management practices on crop quality and control greenhouse gasses emission. The major microbial activities in paddy field include methanogenesis, CH4 oxidation and biogeochemical cycling of elements. We also discussed the management of the soil microbial community and other different amendments to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and ultimately, we can reduce its effect on climate change.
Keywords: Microbial community; Paddy soil; Greenhouse gasses; Methanogenesis