In this study, we report in vitro chloroquine (CQ) and artemisinin combination studies of eight flavonoids against Plasmodium falciparum strains. The flavonoids were previously isolated from Erythrina sp. (Family Leguminosae) growing in Kenya. Synergism was observed for chloroquine/ Sigmoidin E (5) combination at ratios of 5:1 and 3:1 respectively, while other chloroquine/flavonoids combinations showed variable response; either additive or even antagonistic effects. The artemisinin/abyssynone IV (1) combination also showed synergistic interaction at a ratio of 5:1. Further investigations revealed that Abyssinone IV (1) and Abyssinone V (2) were effective inhibitors of plasmodial growth and differentiation regulatory enzyme, pfmrk.
Key words: Combination studies, CQ, artemisinin, flavonoids, sigmoid E, synergism, antagonism, pfmrk.
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