Research in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Res. Pharm. Biotech.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2324
  • DOI: 10.5897/RPB
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 42

Full Length Research Paper

Histopathological examination of formulated drugs against typhoid

S. S. Haque
  • S. S. Haque
  • Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences Patna-14, India
  • Google Scholar
A. Sharan
  • A. Sharan
  • Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences Patna-14, India
  • Google Scholar
U. Kumar
  • U. Kumar
  • Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences Patna-14, India
  • Google Scholar


  •  Accepted: 30 November 2011
  •  Published: 30 December 2011

Abstract

 

Typhoid fever (TF) is a systemic bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi, a facultative and gram negative rods. The infection is usually acquired through the ingestion of contaminated water or food. Almost 80% of cases and deaths occur in Asia. The attack rate as high as 1100 cases per 100000 populations have been documented in developing countries. In typhoid fever, various organs can be involved leading to a wide range of presentation, from uncomplicated to a complicated one involving multiple organs. Histopathological derangements are common in typhoid fever, whereas, hepatic dysfunction has been reported variably from less than 1% to as high as 26%. Nitric oxide (NO•) is synthesized in endothelial cells, from the terminal guanidine nitrogen atom of L-Arginine by means of NO-synthase (NOS). NO• may regulate hepatic metabolism directly by causing alterations in hepatocellular metabolism and function, or indirectly as a result of its vasodilator properties. In this study we evaluated the liver tissues by carrying out a histological examination. We found that extensive tissue with cords of hepatocytes consisting of neutrophils and macrophages, had granulomatous lesions and mild necrosis before and after treatment with the formulated drugs that is L-arginine and ciprofloxacin.

 

Key words: Histopathology of liver tissue, typhoid, nitric oxide.Typhoid fever (TF) is a systemic bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi, a facultative and gram negative rods. The infection is usually acquired through the ingestion of contaminated water or food. Almost 80% of cases and deaths occur in Asia. The attack rate as high as 1100 cases per 100000 populations have been documented in developing countries. In typhoid fever, various organs can be involved leading to a wide range of presentation, from uncomplicated to a complicated one involving multiple organs. Histopathological derangements are common in typhoid fever, whereas, hepatic dysfunction has been reported variably from less than 1% to as high as 26%. Nitric oxide (NO•) is synthesized in endothelial cells, from the terminal guanidine nitrogen atom of L-Arginine by means of NO-synthase (NOS). NO• may regulate hepatic metabolism directly by causing alterations in hepatocellular metabolism and function, or indirectly as a result of its vasodilator properties. In this study we evaluated the liver tissues by carrying out a histological examination. We found that extensive tissue with cords of hepatocytes consisting of neutrophils and macrophages, had granulomatous lesions and mild necrosis before and after treatment with the formulated drugs that is L-arginine and ciprofloxacin.