Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2754

Table of Content: 16 December, 2011; 6(31)

December 2011

Steer-by-switch system design for vehicles

In this paper, design of a steer-by-switch system as a new technology to steer vehicles devoid of a steering wheel was described. In this method, steering of the vehicle was achieved by two push button switches which were related to the front wheels via an electro-hydro-mechanical system. The objective of this design was to eliminate the prejudicial effects associated with the utilisation of steering wheels in machines....

Author(s): Daryoush Safarzadeh, Shamsuddin Sulaiman, Faieza Abdul Aziz, Desa Bin Ahmad and Gholam Hossein Majzoobi

December 2011

Comparative analysis of minimum inhibitory concentration of various brands of cephalosporin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus poses a serious global threat due to difficulty in treatment of its multi-drug resistant strains. One hundred and fifty isolates were collected from pathology laboratory of Nashtar Medical Hospital, Multan; out of which, 50% isolates were found resistant to erythromycin, 100% to carbenicillin and 97% to ampicillin. Vancomycin was comparatively most effective as compared to other antibiotics....

Author(s): K. Farzana, S. Noreen, B. Nasir, S. Azhar, A. Mumtaz, A. Sethi, M. H. B. Asad, B. A. Khan, S. A. Khan and G. Murtaza

December 2011

Utilizing non-iterative linear transformations between non-uniformly dilated 3D frames

Linear transformations have been routinely applied in various field applications since they permit a straightforward geometric relationship between different coordinate systems. The most general form of linear transformations which is also referred to as the affine model allows coordinate transformations between non-uniformly dilated systems. This particular model is intrinsically useful for datum applications in...

Author(s): Jen-Yu Han, Tomás Soler and Jenny Guo

December 2011

Research on balance of fuzzy cognitive map

In order to evaluate better the conflicts in FCM (fuzzy cognitive map), the paper focuses on the research of the balance of FCM. We first further analyze the causal relationship in FCM and the balance of FCM. Based on these, key edge is essential factor to determine whether FCM balanced or not. Moreover, one new balance degree of FCM is used to measure the conflicts. Finally, a method of searching for key edge is given...

Author(s): Zhen Peng, and Bingru Yang

December 2011

Determination of the fundamental nutritional components in fresh and hot smoked spiny eel (Mastacembelus mastacembelus, Bank and Solander, 1794)

In this study the nutritional components of spiny eel obtained from Atatürk Dam Lake within the borders of Turkey by using fishing nets was investigated when it was fresh and after smoking process. While the quantity of the raw protein, raw fat, raw ash and carbohydrates in fresh spiny eel were determined as 19.88 ± 0.18%, 2.10 ± 0.62, 1.38 ± 0.24%, 0.07 ±...

Author(s): Ä°lkan Ali OLGUNOÄžLU

December 2011

Evaluation of cagA tyrosine phosphorylation DNA motifs in Helicobacter pylori isolates from gastric disorder patients in West of Iran

Cag Pathogenicity Island (cag-PAI)-containing Helicobacter pylori strains induces signal transduction pathways resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins adjacent to the site of bacterial adhesion on host gastric epithelial cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were designed to test the presence of three nucleotide sequences corresponding to tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs) A, B, and...

Author(s): Mohammad Kargar, Negar Souod, Sadegh Ghorbani-Dalini, Abbas Doosti and Abbas Ali Rezaeian

December 2011

Effect of temperature on the development of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

An invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has attacked cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seriously in Pakistan and India, and caused great loss in the production of cotton in recent years. This kind of pests can probably spread rapidly and would threaten cotton and other crops in many infested and non-infested countries. P. solenopsis has first been reported to...

Author(s): Yongyue LU, Xin GUAN and Ling ZENG

December 2011

Transient effects of heater on CO2 emissions in an automobile

This study investigates the transient effects of heater on CO2 emissions in an automobile. In the evaluation of comfort in automobiles, in general temperature, humidity and air velocity measurements are taken. It is also important to assess the CO2 emission of the air inside a car. The aim of this study was to measure the CO2 emissions with different occupant numbers, different air velocities with...

Author(s): M. Özgün Korukçu and Muhsin Kiliç

December 2011

A simplified adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller trained by genetic algorithm to control nonlinear multi-input multi-output systems

This paper presents a simplified adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller to control nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. This controller uses only few rules to provide the control actions, instead of the full combination of all possible rules. Consequently, the proposed controller possesses several advantages over the conventional ANFIS controller especially the reduction in execution...

Author(s): Omar F. Lutfy, Samsul B. Mohd Noor and Mohammad H. Marhaban

December 2011

Selecting the best ABS sensor technology using fuzzy MADM

In the competitive world today, maintaining and developing market share are of great importance to any business, and technology plays an important role here. Technology selection, influencing the competitive advantages of an enterprise or a country is a multi-criteria decision problem which can be improved by integrating different MCDM1 methods. Many different resources including financial, human and time are spent...

Author(s): Majid Elahi, Mohsen Alvandi, Hassan Khodaei Valehzagharad and Mostafa Memarzade

December 2011

Optimization strategy for air traffic flow in multi-airport network

To avoid the airport congestion and reduce flight delays, the paper studied the airport traffic balance from a system perspective at the strategic level. By considering the single-airport approach and departure as well as the correlation between the multi-airport connecting flights, the paper proposed network system on traffic flow which is open and has a direction in multi-airport; the paper set up multi-airport open...

Author(s): Yu JIANG, Honghai ZHANG and Hongshan XIA

December 2011

An overview on shifting cultivation with reference to Bangladesh

Shifting cultivation is a form of land use among resource poor communities with a rotation of cultivation and fallow in the same unit of land. Millions of indigenous people are dependent on shifting cultivation practice, with majority households for subsistence living. This practice is in transition these days with rising population of shifting cultivators and demand for more food. Bangladesh...

Author(s): M. A. Hossain

December 2011

Correlation between pulse wave velocity and serum sLOX-1 in patients with acute cerebral infarction

To investigate the relationship between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and serum lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) level in patients with acute cerebral infarction, a total of 58 patients with acute cerebral infarction occurring within 72 h and 30 subjects (control) without stroke receiving physical examination were recruited into the present study. The right carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV) was...

Author(s): Chao Lai, Cunfu Wang, Zhaohong Xie, Li Liu, Zhengyu Zhu and Jianzhong Bi

December 2011

Online Quantitative feedback theory (QFT) -based self-tuning controller for grain drying process

This paper presents a development of QFT-based self-tuning controller for a conveyor belt type grain dryer plant. Grain drying process is complex due to long time delay, presence of disturbances and plant uncertainty. QFT technique potentially has excellent solution towards this problem due to its well known capability to achieve robust performance regardless parameters variation and disturbances. The mathematical model...

Author(s): Hasmah Mansor, Samsul Bahari Mohd. Noor, Raja Kamil Raja Ahmad and Farah Saleena Taip

December 2011

Game theory approaches for improving intrusion detection in MANETs

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are wireless networks in which the mobile nodes exchange information without the help of any predefined infrastructure. In such networks also called spontaneous networks, the nodes collaborate to provide the basic network services. Due to their communication type and resources constraint, MANETs are vulnerable to diverse types of attacks and intrusions. One of the security mechanisms for...

Author(s): Mohammad Masoud Javidi and Laya Aliahmadipour

December 2011

Impact of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 polymorphism and environmental lead exposure on oxidative stress biomarkers

Oxidative stress and genetic related to antioxidants could have influence on susceptibility to lead (Pb) toxicity. In this study, we aim to examine the effects of genetic variations of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene on oxidative stress alterations (by the measurements of malondialdehyde; MDA and glutathione; GSH) among general population. Real-time-PCR with Taqman probes was performed to analyze GSTM1, GSTT1 and...

Author(s): Nitchaphat Khansakorn, Waranya Wongwit, Prapin Tharnpoophasiam, Bunlue Hengprasith, Lerson Suwannathon, Krittaya Pethchpoung, Krongtong Yoovathaworn, Suwannee Chanprasertyothin, Thunyachai Sura, Sming Kaojarern, Piyamit Sritara and Jintana Sirivarasai

December 2011

The carotid artery calcification in type II diabetic patients on panoramic radiographs: An important marker for vascular risk

The risk of stroke in diabetic patients is higher than other people. The most important cause of stroke is atherosclerotic plaque formation and detection of this defect is possible in panoramic radiography. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) in type II diabetic patients and healthy individuals based on panoramic radiographs (PRs). We evaluated 458 PRs taken...

Author(s): Maryam Tofangchiha, Maryam Foroozia, Mahin Bakhshi, and Hoorie Bashizade

December 2011

Automatic Spike detection and correction for outdoor machine vision: Application to tomato

The use of outdoor machine vision has become part of the technology used in industry, farming, and military. Applications include color recognition such as obstacle detection, road following, and landmark recognition. This study proposes a spike auto-detection and correction technique based on color modeling and surface reflectance to predict the color and correct the spike region apparent color on the tomato surface....

Author(s): Nasrolah Sahragard, Abdul Rahman Bin Ramli, Mohammad Hamiruce Bin Marhaban and Shattri Bin Mansor

December 2011

Analysis of support requirements for a tunnel portal in weak rock: A case study from Turkey

In this paper, engineering geological properties of the entrance portal section of Konakönü Tunnel, located on Black Sea Coastal Highway, Turkey, is studied.Moderately weathered basaltic and andesitic tuffs orderly to be driven by the entrance portal section. Tunnel portal design in weak rock presents some special challenges to the designers, since misjudgements in the design of tunnel can lead to very...

Author(s): Ayberk Kaya, Fikri Bulut, Selçuk AlemdaÄŸ and Aytuna Sayin

December 2011

Effect of eutrophication on cyanobacteria inhibition by Alternanthera philoxeroides

The inhibition of harmful algal growth by alligator weed depends on its nutritional status. Aqueous extracts of Alternanthera  philoxeroides exhibited the strongest inhibition of the algae in oligotrophic conditions, moderate inhibition in mesotrophic conditions, and the lowest inhibition in eutrophic conditions. The phytotoxic effect of the culture filtrate decreased gradually in the order:...

Author(s): S. Zuo, H. Mei, L. Ye and M. Li

December 2011

Meta-analysis on the relationship between genetic polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genetic polymorphisms and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese population

We aimed to evaluate the association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism with ESCC. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical Database. All the articles searched were independently reviewed and selected by 2 evaluators according to the predetermined criteria. A total of 10 case-control studies published between 2001 and 2011 were included. When all the studies were pooled, the crude...

Author(s): HU Xue-bin, FENG Zhe, FAN Yu-cong, XIONG Zhi-yong and HUANG Qi-wei

December 2011

Characterization of virulence genes in typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in infants and children in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of EPEC in children with diarrhea by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting the eae gene. The presence of virulence gene including bfpA was also investigated by PCR, for the differentiation of typical and atypical EPEC strains....

Author(s): Khorshidi Ahmad, Motallebi Mitra, Rohani Mehdi and Piroozmand Ahmad

December 2011

A new mathematical model of peristaltic flow on esophageal bolus transport

A new mathematical model is developed for peristaltic transport in the esophagus. Manometric measurements of luminal pressure have been obtained in the esophagus and interpreted both biological and mechanical point of view. Biological data analysis pointed out that pressure distribution has a polynomial form along the esophagus. However, it has been considered as sinusoidal in calculations by scientists. Therefore, a...

Author(s): Ethem Toklu