Journal of
General and Molecular Virology

  • Abbreviation: J. Gen. Mol. Virol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6648
  • DOI: 10.5897/JGMV
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 37

JGMV Articles

Field deployable Reverse Transcriptase–Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RT-RPA) for detection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV)

April 2022

Diagnosis of maize lethal necrosis (MLN)-causing viruses is key in MLN surveillance programs and in testing seed for zero tolerance of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in seed lots. This is crucial for MLN management in farmers’ fields and in commercial seed fields. A customized MCMV detection assay that is specific, sensitive, affordable, and portable is therefore important for this task. Reverse...

Author(s): F. M. Mwatuni,, M. G. Redinbaugh, S. Miller, X. Ma, B. N. Aggrey and L. M. Suresh

A two-end point analysis reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV)

November 2020

Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease is a major constraint on maize production in Eastern Africa since its first report in 2012 in Kenya. The main causative agent is maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) which co-infects maize with other viruses from the family Potyviridae. In Africa, Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is the most common potyvirus that co-infects maize synergistically with MCMV. MCMV can be transmitted by...

Author(s): Francis M. Mwatuni,, Margaret Peg Radinbaugh, Sally Miller, Xing Ma, Aggrey B. Nyende,  L. M. Suresh and Ivan Obare  

SARS-CoV-2 Molecular Clock and Zoonosis

June 2020

SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), associated with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) coined by World Health Organization, belongs to single stranded RNA viruses (ssRNA Viruses) under Betacoronaviruses. The virus’ molecular dynamics are necessary in the wake of human-human transmissions globally with mortality cases on the rise, thusly the race for a vaccine. As the viral genome...

Author(s): ALINDA Alfred Khamala, AMBUTSI Michael John, KAKAI Shem Khakame and OKOTH Patrick Kirsteen  

Maize lethal necrosis and the molecular basis of variability in concentrations of the causal viruses in co-infected maize plant

June 2019

Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease is new to Africa. First report was in Kenya in 2012, since then the disease has rapidly spread to most parts of eastern and central Africa region including Tanzania, Burundi, DRC Congo, Rwanda, Uganda, Ethiopia and similar symptoms were observed in South Sudan. Elsewhere, the disease was caused by infection of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMV) in combination with any of the...

Author(s): L. A. O. Awata, B. E. Ifie, P. Tongoona, E. Danquah, M. B. Jumbo, M. Gowda, P. W. Marchelo-D’ragga, Chelang’at Sitonik, and L. M. Suresh  

Genetic diversity of rice yellow mottle virus from Niger Office and Selingue Development Rural Office in Mali

December 2018

Virus is the most constraint of rice production in West Africa. Genetic diversity of rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was assessed in two rice growing areas of Mali. Forty-three (43) infected rice leaf samples were collected from five locations within the Niger Office and Selingue Development Rural Office rice’s growing areas. The infected samples were confirmed by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction...

Author(s): Samaké Salimatou, Traoré Diakaridia, Goita Oumarou, Sarra Soungalo, Dao Sognan, Doumbia Bakaye and Amadou Hamadoun Babana  

Molecular characterization of genetic diversity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) begomovirus in Togo

November 2017

Geminiviruses, in particular the members of the genus begomovirus, are considered to be a major phytosanitary problem for tomato crops production in the world. They are responsible for yield losses of up to 20 to 100% and Togo is not spared from this situation. The present study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of the begomoviruses affecting tomato crops production in Togo and their relationship with other...

Author(s): Assion Sétu MIVEDOR, Kodjovi Atassé DANSOU-KODJO, Kossikouma Djodji ADJATA, Jérôme DUCLERCQ and Yawovi Mawuena Dieudonné GUMEDZOE

Comparison of immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, polymerase chain reaction and haemadsorption tests in the detection of African swine fever virus in cell cultures using Ugandan isolates

November 2014

African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating viral disease of pigs and is among the major hindrances to pig industry in sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. The aim of this study was to compare immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) to PCR in detection of ASF virus in infected macrophage cultures and to categorize ASF viral isolates in Uganda by haemadsorption assay. Field strains of ASF virus were isolated from infected...

Author(s): Mathias Afayoa, David Kalenzi Atuhaire, Sylvester Ochwo, Julius Boniface Okuni, Kisekka Majid, Frank Norbert Mwiine, William Olaho-Mukani and Lonzy Ojok

Assessment of the current status of HIV virus and predisposing factors among students at Dilla University and Dilla Referral Hospital, Ethiopia

August 2014

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cannot be transmitted by causal contact, air, food and water. People with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome have human immunodeficiency virus in their blood and body fluids that can enter the blood stream of an uninfected person upon contact with infected body fluids or sexual contact with an infected person. Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire,...

Author(s): Fekadu Alemu

Molecular characterization of influenza A (H7N9) virus from the first imported H7N9 infection case in Malaysia

June 2014

H7N9 is an avian strain of the species Influenza virus that circulates among avian populations. Occasionally, some variants of this strain were known to infect humans. On March 30, 2013, a novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus that infects human beings was identified in China. In February 2014, the first case of H7N9 infection outside China was reported in Malaysia involving a Chinese tourist. This study was aimed to...

Author(s): Jeyanthi S., Tengku Rogayah T. A. R., Thayan R., Az-UlHusna A., Aruna A., Khebir B. V., Thevarajah B., Maria S. and Zainah S.

Phenotypic and molecular screening of cassava (Manihot esculentum Crantz) genotypes for resistance to cassava mosaic disease

June 2014

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by cassava mosaic geminivirus (CMG) is the most-important disease threatening production of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in Ghana. The disease is best managed through host-plant resistance. The study was conducted to assess resistance of 38 cassava genotypes to CMD, determine the associated resistance gene, and to identify the strains of CMG infecting cassava in Ghana. Both...

Author(s): P. A. Asare, I. K. A. Galyuon, E. Asare-Bediako, J. K. Sarfo and J. P. Tetteh

Subgenogroup B5 maintains its supremacy over other human Enterovirus71 strains that circulated in Malaysia from 2010 to 2012

May 2014

Human enterovirus71 (HEV71) is responsible for hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD). Several outbreaks of HFMD were associated with severe neurological disease and deaths. In Malaysia, outbreaks normally occur periodically every two to three years but HEV71 were isolated throughout the year from HFMD cases. From 2010 to 2012, HEV71 strains were isolated from 37 children presented with typical HFMD. All isolates were...

Author(s): Mohd Apandi Yusof,  Hariyati Md Ali, Hamadah Mohammad Shariff, Noor Khairunnisa Ramli, Zarina Mohd Zawawi, Syarifah Nur Aisyatun, Jasinta Anak Dennis and Zainah Saat

The potential of house fly, Musca domestica (L.) in the mechanical transmission of influenza A subtype H1N1 virus under laboratory conditions

August 2013

  A study on house flies was carried out to establish whether house flies can transmit the H1N1 virus mechanically due to their abundance, ability to transport pathogens and their behavioral traits of regurgitation and defecation. The objectives of this study were to examine the efficiency of house fly legs in picking up the influenza H1N1 virus particles, persistency of the virus particles on the legs at...

Author(s): Nazni W. A., Apandi M. Y., Eugene M., Azahari A. H., Shahar M. K., Zainah S., Vthylingam I. and Lee H. L.

Molecular characterization of adenovirus causing acute respiratory disease in Malaysia from 2003 to 2011

August 2013

  Human Adenoviruses (HAdVs) are human pathogens that normally are associated with acute respiratory disease (ARD). Here, in this study, we characterized human adenovirus isolated from respiratory specimens collected from 2003 to 2011. Positive adenovirus were confirmed by cell culture and indirect immunoflourescence (IF) techniques. The isolates and positive clinical samples were subjected to adenovirus...

Author(s): Mohd Apandi Y., Zarina M. Z., Khairul Azuan O., Nur Ismawati A. R. and Zainah S.

High prevalence of anti- hepatitis E virus among Egyptian blood donors

May 2013

  This study evaluated the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among blood donors attending blood transfusion Center of Suez Canal University Hospital from March to September, 2010. Four hundred eighty eight (488) subjects which consisted of 137 Anti- Hepatitis C virus positive donors, 35 Hepatitis B surface antigens positive donors and 316 blood donors who were negative Hepatitis B surface antigen, Anti-...

Author(s): Endale Tadesse, Lobna Metwally and Alaa EL- Din Saad Abd-El Hamid

Rapid progression to human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) correlates with variation in viral ‘tat’ sequences

May 2013

  Gene sequence diversity plays an important function in determining survival of micro-organisms. Pathogenicity of HIV is correlated to host as well as viral factors. We aimed to identify sequence variations in tat, nef and the membrane-proximal gp41. These genes regulate important viral functions: tat for trans-activation, nef for enhancing infectivity and the...

Author(s): Mary Bridget Nanteza, David Yirrell, Benon Biryahwaho, Natasha Larke, Emily Webb, Frances Gotch and Pontiano Kaleebu,

Degree of liver injury in Dengue virus infection

October 2012

  This study evaluated the degree of liver damage during an extensive Dengue Virusepidemic in Port Sudan, Sudan, extending from July to December 2009. In 633 confirmed Dengue cases, the degree of hepatic injury was assessed as follows: Grade 0 - normal levels of liver enzymes; Grade 1 - mild elevation in the liver enzymes, not exceeding the double of the reference value; Grade 2 - elevated liver enzymes,...

Author(s): Ali K. Ageep

Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen and Hepatitis C virus antibodies among pre-surgery screened patients in Khartoum, Central Sudan

October 2012

  The prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infection varies between different regions of Sudan according to several published reports. The present study is a descriptive hospital-based study aimed to estimate prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-Hepatitis C virus antibodies among 3172 patients undergoing surgery at Al-Shaab Teaching Hospital in Khartoum from April 2008 to April 2011. All patients were...

Author(s):   Emad-Aldin Ibrahim Osman, Nagwa Ahmed Abdulrahman, Osman Abbass, Waleed Hussein Omer, Hafi Anwer Saad and Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid

Serodiagnosis evaluation of rabies and animal bites in North of Iran, 2010

November 2011

Rabies disease is one of the most important public health problems in some countries of the world such as those in the Eastern Mediterranean region. According to the world health organization reports, more than 10 million people who are bitten by animals are annually treated by prophylactic treatment regimen of rabies in the world. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence and other information’s...

Author(s): Behzad Esfandiari, Mohammad Reza Youssefi and Ahmad Fayaz

Detection of human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type-1 among patients with malignant hematological diseases in Capital of Iran, Tehran

November 2011

  Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus linked causally to adult T-cell leukemia or lymphoma (ATL), and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The aim of this study was to detect HTLV-1 infection in patients with malignant hematological diseases and also determining the prevalence of HTLV-1 in these patient groups. Sixty patients with malignant...

Author(s): Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Hossein Keyvani, Hamidreza mollaie, Mehdi fazlalipour, Farzin sadeghi, Mostafa Salehi-Vaziri, Roghaeh mollaie and Farah Bokharaei-Salim

No xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) detected in Swedish monozygotic twins discordant for chronic fatigue

October 2011

  The recent debate regarding the possible involvement of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in humans has been intense due to the conflicting results from different studies and the unclear origin of the XMRV virus. In this study, we have addressed this issue by screening 47 pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS using a sensitive PCR...

Author(s):   Patrick F. Sullivan, Franzcp, Tobias Allander, Cecilia Lindau, Kristina Fahlander, Andreas Jacks, Birgitta Evengård, Nancy L. Pedersen and Björn Andersson

Intragenotypic diversity in the VP4 encoding genes of rotavirus strains circulating in adolescent and adult cases of acute gastroenteritis in Pune, Western India: 1993 to 1996 and 2004 to 2007

October 2011

  Genetic variability of rotaviruses circulating in Pune, India at the two time points was determined by characterizing VP4 genes in 131 rotavirus strains detected in adolescent and adult cases of acute gastroenteritis. The multiplex RT-PCR classified the VP4 genes in 73 P[4] (43.2%), 69P[8] (40.8%) and 27 P[6] (16.0%) genotypes. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed increase in the...

Author(s): Vaishali S. Tatte and D. Shobha D. Chitambar

Detection of diagnosis escape variants of Hepatitis B virus by in house polymerase chain reaction assay

July 2011

  Quantitative detection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay emerged as a gold standard in guided anti viral therapy. HBV, due to its quasispecies nature, whether evade detection by the commercially used diagnostic PCR assays have not been elucidated so far. In this study, an in house nested PCR assay employing mismatched primer was found to detect HBV...

Author(s):   P. Balkumar Reddy, R. M. Mukherjee, J. Aparna, Sasikala Mitnala, P. N. Rao, R. Gupta and D. N. Reddy

Eggplant blister mottled virus (EBMV): A possible new potyvirus characterized from Iraq

July 2011

  A possible new potyvirus infecting eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) was characterized from Iraq. The virus caused characteristic mottling, crinkling, blistering and stunting accompanied by severe abnormalities on new leaves and fruits. The virus was mechanically transmitted to Gomphrena globosa and Zinnia elegans producing necrotic local lesions (NLL) within 5 days of inoculation. The...

Author(s): Rakib A. Al-Ani, Mustafa A. Adhab and Kareem A. H. Ismail

Norovirus based viral gastroenteritis in Chennai city of southern India - An epidemiological study

April 2011

  The study evaluated the incidence of norovirus associated gastroenteritis in India. During the year 2005 to 2006, stool samples from communicable disease hospital were collected from subjects suspected for non – bacterial gastroenteritis and were examined for norovirus. Samples were analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and further confirmed by hybridisation and...

Author(s): S. Anbazhagi, S. Kamatchiammal and D. Jayakar Santhosh

Epidemiology and molecular characterization of chikungunya virus involved in the 2008 to 2009 outbreak in Malaysia

April 2011

  The 2008 to 2009 outbreak of chikungunya was considered as the huge and worst outbreak of CHIKV (Chikungunya virus) infections in history of the country affecting all states in both Peninsular and East Malaysia. This was unlike the first outbreak in late 1998, which was only restricted to Klang district in Selangor and six years later the second outbreak which only involved the state of Perak. The objective...

Author(s): Mohd Apandi Yusof, Lau Sau Kuen, Norfaezah Adnan, Nur Izmawati Abd Razak, Liyana Ahmad Zamri, Khairul Izwan Hulaimi and Zainah Saat

Molecular approaches towards analyzing the viruses infecting maize (Zea mays L.)

January 2011

  Information on virus diseases of maize still remains scanty in several maize growing countries. Therefore it is hoped that this description will stimulate more research, which will lead to better understanding of viruses infecting maize in Africa. Plant viruses are a major yield-reducing factor for field and horticultural crops. The losses caused by plant viruses are greater in the tropics and subtropics,...

Author(s): Kamal Sharma, and Raj Shekhar Misra

Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus71 (HEV71) strains isolated in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah from year 2001 to 2009

January 2011

  Human enterovirus71 (HEV71) together with other enteroviruses such as Coxsackie A16 and Coxsackie A10 is known to be responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease. Several of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks caused by HEV71 were associated with neurological manifestations and deaths. In Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah, even though huge outbreaks of HFMD have never been reported; HEV71 strains...

Author(s): Mohd Apandi Yusof, Fazilah Rais, Maizatul Akma Abdullah, Liyana Ahmad Zamri, Hariyati Md Ali, Fauziah Md Kassim and Zainah Saat

Feasibility and factors affecting global elimination and possible eradication of rabies in the world

February 2010

  This article reviews the feasibility of global eradication of rabies and factors affecting eradication of rabies in the world. Effective vaccines are now available against many viruses making eradication a viable proposition. As in the case of smallpox, the following questions should be addressed when the feasibility of eradication of a particular human virus disease is considered. Is the disease worth...

Author(s): A. A. Ogun, I. O. Okonko, A. O. Udeze, I. Shittu, K. N. Garba, A. Fowotade, O. G. Adewale, E. A. Fajobi, B. A. Onoja, E. T. Babalola and A. O. Adedeji

Incidence of okra mosaic virus at different growth stages of okra plants ([Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) under tropical condition

February 2010

  The degree of okra mosaic virus (OMV) at different growth stages of okra plants was studied using a netted barrier method. In a two factor RCB design with three replications, a 2 m high netted barrier were laid out in unit plots of 2 x 2 m using eight treatments: T1- Netting up to 7 days after seedling emergence (DAE); T2- Netting up to 14 DAE; T3- Netting up to 21 DAE; T4- Netting up to 28 DAE; T5- Netting...

Author(s): A. A. Fajinmi and O. B. Fajinmi

First report of symptoms associated to a phytoplasma affecting Nopal (Opuntia ficusindica Mill) in the “Pyramids” Indian, State of Mexico

December 2009

  An unknown symptomatology, including yellowing in old plantations, colorless of cladode epidermis, cladode deforming and curly, were observed on the Indian Fig (prickly pear cactus) (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) in the “Pyramids” Indian area located in the northeastern State of Mexico. The samples collected were analyzed through a nested-PCR reaction. The symptoms found, were all attributed to the...

Author(s): Ricardo Hernández-Pérez, Juan Carlos Noa-Carrazana, Ricardo Gaspar, Pedro Mata and Norma Flores-Estévez

Efficiency of cassava brown streak virus transmission by two whitefly species in coastal Kenya

December 2009

  The efficiency of cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) transmission by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and spiraling whitefly (Aleurodicus dispersus) Russell (Hom, Aleyrodidae) was determined. The transmission utilized field collected adult whitefly populations fed on (allowed 48 h acquisition access feeding period (AAP)) on CBSD (cassava brown streak virus disease) symptomatic leaves before...

Author(s): B. Mware, R. Narla, R. Amata, F. Olubayo, J. Songa, S. Kyamanyua, and E. M. Ateka

AIDS crisis in Pakistan

October 2009

  The estimated number of HIV patients in Pakistan is ~80,000 that is about 0.1% of the adult population of the country. Although the prevalence of HIV/AIDS seems to be low but still the country is at high risk as the potential for a widespread epidemic is high due to contamination risk factors common in this country like other countries with high HIV prevalence. These risk factors include, low...

Author(s): Syeda Samra Iqbal Jaferi, Muhammad Ilyas and Muhammad Idrees

The first isolation of chikungunya virus from non-human primates in Malaysia

October 2009

  Chikungunya is a mosquito borne disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The virus is transmitted to human by Aedes genus mosquitoes. Transmission cycles of CHIKV can be man - mosquito - man (urban cycle) or animal - mosquito - man (sylvatic cycle). Sylvatic transmission cycle of CHIKV has been described in Africa and may play a role in re-emergence of CHIKV infection. In Malaysia, CHIKV- neutralizing...

Author(s): Y. Apandi, W. A. Nazni, Z. A. Noor Azleen, I. Vythilingam, M. Y. Noorazian, A. H. Azahari, S. Zainah and H. L. Lee

Functional analysis of lassa virus glycoprotein from a newly identified lassa virus strain for possible use as vaccine using computational methods

August 2009

  Lassa virus is the cause of morbidity and mortality in Ekpoma Nigeria. Recently, two new strains of the virus were identified. The genes were sequenced and deposited in the GenBank. We presume that genes of similar sequence will code for protein of similar function. Hence any vaccine produced using this protein could protect against any other similar virus due to conservation of active and functional regions....

Author(s): L. E. Okoror, H. A. T. Alaiya and I. B. A. Momodu

Hepatitis C virus infection: A review of the current and future aspects and concerns in Pakistan

August 2009

  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major etiological agent of hepatitis. It infects 200 million people worldwide and 85% of them could develop chronic hepatitis, liver function failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis C is rapidly emerging as a major health problem in developing countries like Pakistan with prevalence rate of 10% and genotype 3a is the most...

Author(s): H. Akbar, M. Idrees, S. Manzoor, I. ur Rehman, S. Butt, M. Z. Yousaf , S. Rafique, Z. Awan, B. Khubaib, M. Akram and M. Aftab

Serological and RT-PCR detection of cowpea mild mottle carlavirus infecting soybean

June 2009

  During 2006-2007 growing seasons, survey was carried to identify a disease of possible viral etiology causing mosaic of soybean in the soybean field. Leaf samples showing symptoms of mild mosaic were collected from soybean fields in Dezful region (Khozestan province, Southern Iran). Electron microscopy, DAS-ELISA serological tests and RT-PCR assays with specific pairs of primers...

Author(s): M. Tavasoli, N. Shahraeen and SH. Ghorbani

Pathological, serological and virological findings in goats experimentally infected with Sudanese Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) virus isolates

June 2009

  Four Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) Isolates were collected from clinical cases of three goats and one sheep from Khartoum State; Soba/Khartoum State and Bashaier/River Nile State. These PPR viruses were isolated in Lamb kidney cells (LKC) and Lamb testis cells (LTC) and identified by Agar Gel Precipitation Test (AGPT) and Hemagglutinition (HA) tests. Four PPRV isolates were used for experimental...

Author(s): Nussieba A. Osman, A. S. Ali, M. E. A/Rahman and M. A. Fadol

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