African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6577

Full Length Research Paper

White clover tolerance to herbicides applied at different rates and phenological stages

Marcia Fernanda Franchin Adami
  • Marcia Fernanda Franchin Adami
  • Federal Technologic University of Paraná, UTFPR, Pato Branco, Paraná, Brazil.
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Alcir José Modolo
  • Alcir José Modolo
  • Federal Technologic University of Paraná, UTFPR, Pato Branco, Paraná, Brazil.
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Paulo Fernando Adami
  • Paulo Fernando Adami
  • Federal Technologic University of Paraná, UTFPR, Dois Vizinhos, Paraná, Brazil.
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Pedro Valério Dutra de Moraes
  • Pedro Valério Dutra de Moraes
  • Federal Technologic University of Paraná, UTFPR, Dois Vizinhos, Paraná, Brazil.
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Christiano Santos Rocha Pitta
  • Christiano Santos Rocha Pitta
  • Federal Institute of Paraná, IFPR, Palmas, Paraná, Brazil.
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Patricia Rossi
  • Patricia Rossi
  • Federal Technologic University of Paraná, UTFPR, Dois Vizinhos, Paraná, Brazil.
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Vanderson Vieira Batista
  • Vanderson Vieira Batista
  • Federal Technologic University of Paraná, UTFPR, Dois Vizinhos, Paraná, Brazil.
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  •  Received: 03 November 2016
  •  Accepted: 16 February 2017
  •  Published: 13 July 2017

Abstract

Glyphosate, 2,4-D, imazethapyr and paraquat + diuron were studied in greenhouse experiments at four application rates in order to evaluate their effects on white clover (Trifolium repens L.) growth and aerial shoot injury at three different phenological stages. Herbicide-induced foliar injury on white clover ranged from no symptoms to early chlorosis, leaf necrosis, stunted growth and death depending on herbicide rate and white clover phenological stage. Imazethapyr showed the highest selectivity at the three-leaf trifoliate stage. Seedlings treated with glyphosate at 1080 g a.i. ha-1, however, were dead at 21 days after application (DAA). White clover herbicide tolerance increased with plant age, and selectivity was found to be affected as herbicide rate increased. Paraquat + diuron caused the highest levels of white clover phytotoxicity and plant death. The herbicides studied showed potential to be used as selective products on white clover depending on their rates, as well as the timing of their application onto white clover depending furthermore, on the specificity weeds infesting white clover fields.

Key words: Glyphosate, 2,4-D, Paraquat + diuron, Imazethapyr, Trifolium repens.