African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6849

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of converter sludge, and its mixtures with organic matter, elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid on availability of iron, phosphorus and manganese of 3 calcareous soils from central Iran

N. Karimian*, M. Kalbasi and S. Hajrasuliha
Department of Soil Science, Islamic Azad University of Khorasgan, Isfahan, Iran.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 16 December 2011
  •  Published: 31 January 2012



Application of industrial wastes as soil amendment and fertilizers is now a common practice in agriculture. The effect of application of converter sludge, along with organic matter (alfalfa powder), elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid to 3 calcareous soils from central Iran was investigated in an incubation study. Converter sludge used contained 64% iron oxides. Treatments included 0, 2 and 4% pure converter sludge and mixed with organic matter and acidifiers. Results showed that application of 4% pure  converter sludge increased soil pH and decreased soil Electrical conductivity (EC) but using a mixture of converter sludge with organic matter or acidifying materials (elemental S and sulfuric acid) decreased soil pH and increased EC. Olsen-P was least affected by the treatments.  Application of mixtures of converter sludge with organic matter  elemental S and sulfuric acid significantly increased DTPA-extractable Fe and Mn in all 3 calcareous soils with organic matter having the largest effect on DTPA-extractable Fe and elemental S, organic matter and sulfuric acid mixtures having similar effect on DTPA-extractable Mn.  Olsen-P and DTPA-extractable Fe and Mn decreased with incubation time for all 3 soils. The rate of decrease was highest for Fe and lowest for P and was different for each soil.


Key words: Calcareous soil, converter sludge, organic matter, elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid.