This review focuses on the sustainability of adoption of genetically modified seeds by developed countries like United States, Australia and developing countries such as China and India. It then zooms into the African perspective in relation to countries that adopted Bt cotton. The review indicates that the Bt technology has played a critical role improving cotton yields and reduce the cost of regular spraying for bollworm insects. South Africa is one of the few developing countries, and the only one in Africa that has adopted genetically modified crops for commercial production.
Key words: Sustainability, Bt cotton, Bacillus thuringiensis, smallholder farmers, genetically modified.
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