African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6576

Full Length Research Paper

Cowpea response to nutrient application in Burkina Faso and Niger

Idriss Serme
  • Idriss Serme
  • Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA), O4 BP 8645 Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
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Nouri Maman
  • Nouri Maman
  • Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger- INRAN-Maradi, BP 240, Maradi, Niger.
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Maman Garba
  • Maman Garba
  • Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger, BP 429, Niamey, Niger.
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Abdoul Gonda
  • Abdoul Gonda
  • Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger- INRAN-Maradi, BP 240, Maradi, Niger.
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Korodjouma Ouattara
  • Korodjouma Ouattara
  • Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA), O4 BP 8645 Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
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Charles Wortmann
  • Charles Wortmann
  • Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln NE, USA.
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  •  Received: 25 April 2018
  •  Accepted: 18 June 2018
  •  Published: 26 July 2018

Abstract

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is important in semi-arid West Africa. Yields are low due to inadequate water and nutrient availability and other constraints. Grain and fodder yield responses to nutrient application were determined from 21 site-years of research conducted in the Sahel and Sudan Savanna. The incomplete factorial treatment arrangement varied by country but included: Four levels each of P and K in 7.5 and 10.0 kg ha-1 increments, respectively; Mg-S-Zn-B package (Mg-S-Zn-B); and comparable with and without manure treatments. Yield increases due to P application always occurred with curvilinear to plateau or linear responses. The overall mean grain yield increase was 0.35 Mg ha-1 and 47% due to application of 22.5 kg ha-1 P. Application of K resulted in a linear negative effect in 2014 and positive effect in 2015 for on-station trials in Niger, but had no effect in Burkina Faso and for on-farm trials in Niger. Yield was not affected by Mg-S-Zn-B in Burkina Faso but was increased by a mean of 0.085 Mg ha-1 in Niger. Manure application resulted in a mean yield increase of 0.1 Mg ha-1 in Niger but only with fertilizer P applied, and had no effect in Burkina Faso. Cowpea grain and fodder yields were responsive to fertilizer P up to 22.5 kg ha-1 but little affected by other applied nutrients.

Key words: Fertilizer, fodder, grain, manure, micronutrient, phosphorus, secondary nutrient,  Sahel, Sudan Savanna.

 

Abbreviation

AE, Agronomic efficiency of applied nutrient use; CP, cost  of  nutrient  use relative  to  cowpea grain  value  or kilogram of cowpea grain required to equal the cost of one kilogram of nutrient applied; EOR, the economically optimal rate of nutrient application or the rate expected to maximize net return to nutrient application; PCR, profit cost ratio or the net returns divided by the costs of a nutrient application.