The main objective of this paper was to study the economics of poultry egg- production in the open- system in Khartoum State. Specific objectives were to study the socio-economic features of poultry egg producers, investigate the main factors contributing to the production cost and compare between production costs, total returns and gross margins in different farm types and sizes. A questionnaire was prepared in order to obtain information on quantities and costs beside socio-economic questions such as level of education. The farms were stratified into strata according to the size of the flock to increase the homogeneity of sampling units. The data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis to analyze socio-economic characteristics of egg poultry producers. Also, quantitative technique tools were used to measure the profitability of the farms. The study revealed that 58% from egg poultry producers whose main job are poultry breeding, and 60% of poultry producers have experience of more than five years. The feed cost was the main cost item in the egg farm in open-system that, it represented 90.2, 89.7 and 92.7% of total production cost in small, medium and large farm sizes of egg production, respectively, and about 75.8% in (4 - 5 months old) pullet farm. Also, the study revealed that the other factors of production such as price of day-old chicks, price of (4 - 5 months) hens, mortality cost, vaccines and drugs and labor cost represented the most total cost of production. The total cost of production and cost per dozen were lowest in large farm sizes than other farm sizes and type. Highest gross profit was obtained in large farm sizes, while the lowest ones were observed in pullet farms. However, all farms have CPP greater than unity. The study concluded that: feed cost was the main cost item in different farm types and sizes. High percentage of mortality cost and price of day-old chicks and (4 - 5 months) hens were also high. Also, it concluded that, the large size farm was more efficient than other sizes and type of the farms.
Key words: Egg production, pullet farm, open-system farms.
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