African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6849

Full Length Research Paper

Toxicological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica), Kanair (Nerium oleander) and spinosad (Tracer 240 SC) on the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) (Herbst.)

Asifa Hameed1*, Shoaib Freed2, Altaf Hussain1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Mussurat Hussain1, Muhammad Naeem2, Asif Sajjad2 , Hammad Hussnain1, Muhammad Attiq Sadiq3 and Abdul Latif Tipu1
  1Cotton Research Station, Multan, Pakistan.  2University College of Agriculture, Bhauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.  3Cotton Research Station, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.         
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 28 November 2011
  •  Published: 31 January 2012



The persistence and insecticidal activity of a commercial biological insecticide Spinosad, based on fermentation product of Actinomycetales bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa (Actinomycetales: Actinomycetaceae) and two plant extracts, namely Neem (Azadirchta indica) and Kanair (Nerium oleander) were evaluated against Tribolium castaneum (Hbst) on stored wheat grains. Five concentrations, namely  0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of each insecticide were used at different exposure times, that is, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h. Filter paper dip method was used. Results revealed that Spinosad (Tracer 240 SC) was the best against target pest, with maximum mortality, that is, 55% at 2.5% dose in 168 h exposure time and minimum 16.66% with 0.5% concentration at 24 h exposure time. Neem showed 45% mortality at 168 h exposure time with 2.5% concentration and 16.67% at 0.5% dose at 24 h exposure time followed by Kanair with 38% mortality at maximum application rate and exposure time, that is, 2.5% and 168 h and minimum 15% at minimum application rate, that is, 0.5% at 24 h exposure time. LC50 values were also calculated using Probit analysis technique. LC50 values of Neem, Knair and Spinosad after 24, 48, 72 and 168 h interval were determined. LT50 values of these bioinsecticides interval were also calculated at 2.5% concentration. Results revealed that bio-pesticides are better ways to manage Red flour beetle infestation in stored wheat grains.


Key words: Tribolium castaneum, Spinosad, Azadirchta indica, Nerium oleander, efficacy, LC50 and LT50