African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6848

Full Length Research Paper

Determinants of agroforestry adoption as an adaptation means to drought among smallholder farmers in Nakasongola District, Central Uganda

David Mfitumukiza
  • David Mfitumukiza
  • Makerere University Centre for Climate Change Research and Innovations, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar
Bernard Barasa
  • Bernard Barasa
  • Makerere University Centre for Climate Change Research and Innovations, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar
Aringaniza Ingrid
  • Aringaniza Ingrid
  • Department of Forestry, Biodiversity and Tourism, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 11 February 2017
  •  Accepted: 15 March 2017
  •  Published: 08 June 2017


Agroforestry adoption as a drought adaptation option has an omnibus of opportunities for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions. This study assessed the severity and frequency of drought and the determinants of agroforestry adoption in Nakasongola District. The episodes were examined using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) set at 3, 6 and 12 months timescales. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires, focus group discussions and key informants were adopted. A total of 200 farmers were randomly selected and studied. The adoption was determined using a binary logistic regression. The SPI results showed that the extreme drought years recorded were 1980, 1984, 1986, 1990, 1995, 1999 and 2000; while the wettest years were 2014, 2012, 2013, 2009 and 2010 as per the 3-time scales. The average return period of severe droughts was 4 years.  The levels of agroforestry uptake were higher (85%) between July and June drought period. Agrisilviculture, agrosilvopastoral, silvopastoral and apiculture were the most adopted agroforestry systems by the farmers. The household age, level of education and income were the major significant determinants of agroforestry adoption (p<0.05) in adaptation to drought by the smallholder farmers. The potential benefits of agroforestry adoption included the provision of food, fodder, erosion control and soil fertility enrichment, however, the farmers were mainly constrained by inadequate funds, shortage of tree planting stock, limited extension services and information on agroforestry production. Thus, carrying out massive awareness campaigns on agroforestry practices is more likely to increase the uptake.  


Key words: Drought, agroforestry, determinants, standardised precipitation index (SPI), adoption, smallholder farmers.