African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6839

Full Length Research Paper

Gender differences in agri-marketing farmer organizations in Uganda and Malawi: Implications for R4D delivery mechanisms

Edidah L. Ampaire
  • Edidah L. Ampaire
  • International Development Research Centre, P. O. Box 62084 00200 Nairobi, Kenya.
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Enid M. Katungi
  • Enid M. Katungi
  • International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), P. O. Box 6247, Kampala; Uganda.
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Amare Tegbaru
  • Amare Tegbaru
  • Independent Gender Consultant, Nybohovsbacken 31, 11763 Stockholm, Sweden.
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Robin Buruchara
  • Robin Buruchara
  • International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), P. O. Box 30677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 13 August 2019
  •  Accepted: 17 February 2020
  •  Published: 30 June 2020


Although farmer organizations are acknowledged to link their members to markets, enhance their business skills and enable access to services, there is need for evidence that ascertains if all members benefit equitably. This paper examines benefit distribution and sources of gender differences in mixed-sex collective marketing farmer organizations in Uganda and Malawi. Through a cross-sectional survey, key informant interviews and gender segregated focus group discussions, data were pooled from 10 farmer organizations and 492 individual members. An independent samples t-test revealed that in both countries, men benefited more than women. In Uganda, significant differences existed in skills training, planning meetings, business networks, and impromptu general meetings. In Malawi, significant differences manifested in extension training and decisions regarding investment and marketing. In both countries, men were significantly more dissatisfied with the collective marketing initiatives than women, which resulted in side selling in Malawi. On the other hand, women were significantly more satisfied than men with the collective marketing and, in Malawi, they sold significantly higher quantities through their organizations than men. We conclude that collective marketing farmer organizations connect women members to markets but neither address gender inequalities nor stimulate women empowerment. We propose strategies that can improve gender responsiveness in mixed farmer organizations.

Key words: Farmer organizations, gender differences, benefit distribution, smallholders, Uganda, Malawi.