Self-incompatibility is one of the most considerable difficulties in almond production, which reducing fruit set dramatically and making orchard management difficult. Therefore, breeding almond to produce self-compatible genotypes is very important. The purpose of this investigation was determination and evaluation of self- compatible and late flowering cultivars with good kernel characteristics in 38 almond genotypes resulting from crosses between self-compatible cultivar, "Touno" (male parent) and self-incompatible cultivar, "Fragnees" (female parent). Determination of self-compatible genotypes was carried out by investigation of fruit set levels, microscopic study of pollen tube after self pollination and PCR method. In addition, flowering and fruit characteristics were studied according to Gulcan descriptor. Genotypes number Tf23 and Tf6 were identified as very late flowering and self-compatible genotypes, in which their flowering time is coincidental with the very late flowering commercial cultivar, "Tardi nonpariel". However, fruits of both genotypes were rather small. The highest fruit dry weight (4.24 and 4.06 g) was for self-incompatible genotype Tf28 and self-compatible genotype Tf15, respectively. These two genotypes had also the highest kernel weight being 1.16 and 1.13 g, respectively. Genotypes number Tf24 and Tf31 also had high dry weight fruit and kernel, which Tf24 had been identified as self-compatible, and Tf31 as self-incompatible genotypes. In genotypes Tf15, Tf31 and Tf24 fruit, nut and kernel had good qualities. The colour of nut and kernel of these genotypes were bright. Their kernels were uniform, smooth and sweet with low shrivelling. All fruits were full, with single kernel, which were in the same line as market demands. Investigations on fruit set level in field conditions revealed genotype number Tf23, with 18.23% on fruit set, as the most self-compatible genotype.
Key words: Self-compatibility, self-incompatibility, fruit set, microscopic study.
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