African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6578

Full Length Research Paper

Properties, classification, genesis and agricultural suitability of soils in a semiarid pediplain of North Cameroon

Désiré Tsozué
  • Désiré Tsozué
  • Department of Earth Science, Faculty of Sciences, University of Maroua, P. O. Box, 814 Maroua, Cameroon.
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Oumarou Yakouba
  • Oumarou Yakouba
  • Department of Agriculture, Livestock and By-products, Higher Institute of the Sahel, University of Maroua, P. O. Box, 46 Maroua, Cameroon.
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  •  Received: 29 June 2016
  •  Accepted: 17 August 2016
  •  Published: 08 September 2016

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the morphological and physicochemical characteristics, classification, genesis and suitability of soils developed on pediplain around granitic hills in Minawao in the Far North region of Cameroon. The studied soil profile had 450 cm thick. It is composed of two subsections formed by erosion and cumulization. The upper subsection classified as typic ustifluvents clayey isohyperthermic is characterized by the high content of coarse elements showing stratifications in some part of the horizons. It recovers the below subsection classified as thapto typic haplustalfs clayey isohyperthermic. They are clayey, with clay contents ranging from 45 to 49%, and slightly acidic. Total nitrogen and organic carbon contents are very low ranging respectively from 0.05 to 0.11 and 0.25 to 0.63. Available phosphorous contents are below critical level. Calcium and Magnesium dominate the exchange complex of these soils. Their values range respectively from 12.96 to 15.04 cmol (+)/kg and 3.52 to 6.56 cmol (+)/kg. The CEC values are high, ranging from 44.64 to 57.84 cmol(+)/kg of soil. The CEC clay range from 89.92 to 117.02 cmol(+)/kg of clay. Base saturation percentage values are low, ranging from 37.05 to 42%, corresponding to a mean value of 39.74%. The studied soils are globally subjected to problems of low organic matter content, high coarse material content and low pH for the cultivation of Sorghum, Cotton, Soya, Groundnut, Maize and Cowpea. These problems could be solved through introduction of DMC systems, addition of available organic substrates, restoration of the cation balance and liming.

Key words: Soils, properties, genesis, suitability, North Cameroon.