The entire region of Vojvodina (region in northern Serbia) is an agricultural - steppe - forest zone. The area of Vojvodina covers 2,150,000 ha of which arable land is 1,579,643 ha (73,45 %). Total forested area is about 130,000 ha or 6% of the total area.
At present, all the ecosystems (agro and forest ecosystems), in this region are highly endangered. This is the consequence of local and global economic activities after 1945, which altered societies relationship with the natural environment (Bouma et al., 1998). The soils in Vojvodina are affected by aridification, acidification, eutrophication and pollution. As a region with highly productive agricultural soil, it is subject to and endangered by, different destructive processes, primarily wind erosion, that is climatic extremes, because of which its maximal productive potential cannot be utilised. Wind erosion, as a very destructive factor, causes the detachment and transport of the most fertile particles of the arable topsoil, permanently changing its fertility properties. In addition droughts might also reduce yield. This is multiplied by potential effects of climate changes. Environmental improvement is only possible by integral understanding of urban, non-urban and green spaces, rural landscapes, protective green areas, diversity in agro-ecological areas and protected areas. That is why afforestation is planned over almost 100,000 ha by the establishment of different types of forest plantations and other plantations, such as greenways, shelterbelts, bee-keeping plantations, buffer plantations, eco-corridors, etc. By the implementation of planned afforestation, it could be possible to increase the yield in agriculture, timber production, protection against wind, to improve the environmental conditions, production of honey, development of hunting, sports, recreation tourism and sustainable land use.
Key words: Sustainable land use, afforestation, agro - ecosystems, forest ecosystem.
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