African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6801


Changing demographics, expanding urban areas and modified agricultural extents and their impacts on water availability and water quality in Jordan

Khaled A. Alqadi1*, Lalit Kumar2 and Al-Zu'bi Jarrah3
1Ecosystem Management, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. 2Water Resources and Environment Management, Al Balqa Applied University, Amman, Jordan.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 24 June 2013
  •  Published: 04 July 2013


Current water use in Jordan is unsustainable in terms of both supply and quality. The growth in population, primarily as a consequence of pulse immigration stemming from regional conflicts, has led to serious water shortages in urban centers, which is expected to worsen in the future. The agricultural sector is moving towards intensification and a high reliance on irrigation, which is unsustainable in the face of dwindling supplies and rising contamination, principally due to salinity. The decline in field crops is a consequence of climatic fluctuations such as rainfall, while the nature of the plots, often small and isolated, make economies of scale problematic. Unless there is a significant shift in the trend of population growth, and controls on the use of irrigation, Jordan faces inevitable social conflict and irrevocable loss of agricultural land.


Key words: Water contamination, population growth, agriculture, climate fluctuation, salinity.