African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6848

Full Length Research Paper

Gender roles and constraints in the aquaculture value chain in Western Kenya

Cecilia Muthoni Githukia
  • Cecilia Muthoni Githukia
  • Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Kegati Aquaculture Centre, P.O. Box 3259, Kisii, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Silke-Silvia Drexler
  • Silke-Silvia Drexler
  • Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Gregor-Mendel-Straße 33, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
  • Google Scholar
Kevin Odhiambo Obiero
  • Kevin Odhiambo Obiero
  • Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Sangoro Aquaculture Station, P.O Box 136, Pap-Onditi, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Bryan Otieno Nyawanda
  • Bryan Otieno Nyawanda
  • Kenya Medical Research Institute. P.O. Box 1578, Kisumu, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Judith Achieng’ Odhiambo
  • Judith Achieng’ Odhiambo
  • Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Kisii University P.O Box 408, Kisii, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Joshua Wafula Chesoli
  • Joshua Wafula Chesoli
  • Faculty of Business and Economics, Kisii University P.O Box 408, Kisii, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Julius Otieno Manyala
  • Julius Otieno Manyala
  • School of Spatial Planning and Natural Resource Management, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 210, Bondo, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 11 February 2020
  •  Accepted: 22 April 2020
  •  Published: 31 May 2020


Abila RO, Yongo EO, Lwenya C (2009). Socio-economic baseline survey of the fishing communities of Lake Victoria, Kenya. KMFRI Technical Report No. 1/ 2009, Kisumu, Kenya.


Ajani OIY (2008). Gender dimensions of agriculture, poverty, nutrition and food security in Nigeria. Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP). Background Paper No. NSSP 005, IFPRI- Abuja.


Alcser K, Benson G, Guyer H (2011). Pilot testing the SHARE quality profile. In M. Schröder (Ed.), Retrospective data collection in the survey of health, ageing and retirement in Europe. SHARELIFE Methodology. Mannheim, Germany: MEA. (pp. 37-43). 


Amankwah A, Quagrainie KK, Preckel PV (2016). Demand for improved fish feed in the presence of a subsidy: A double hurdle application in Kenya. Agricultural Economics 47:633643.


Amin R, Hill RB, Li Y (1995). Poor women's participation in credit-based self-employment: the impact on their empowerment, fertility, contraceptive use, and fertility desire in rural Bangladesh. The Pakistan Development Review 34(2):93-119.


Boudet A, Petesch P, Turk C, Thumala A (2013). On norms and agency: Conversations about gender equality with women and men in 20 countries. In Directions in development. Washington, DC: World Bank.


Brugere C, Williams M (2017). Profile: Women in Aquaculture.



Chete OB1 (2019). Gender and agricultural practice in developing countries: Literature review. South Asian Jthenal of Social Studies and Economics 5(2):1-11.


Cohen PJ, Lawless S, Dyer M, Morgan M, Saeni E, Teioli H, Kantor P (2016). Understanding adaptive capacity and capacity to innovate in social-ecological systems: Applying a gender lens. Ambio 45(3):S309-S321.


Deere CD, Doss C (2006). Gender and the distribution of wealth in developing countries. UNUWIDER (World Institute for Development Economics Research of the United Nations University), Research Paper No. 2006/115, UNU-WIDER, Helsinki.


de Haas H (2009). Mobility and human development. Human Development Research Paper. Vol. 01. UNDP.


Doss C (2005). The effects of intra-household property ownership on expenditure patterns in Ghana. Jthenal of African Economies 15:149-180.


Edwards P (2000). 'Aquaculture, Poverty Impacts and Livelihoods'. Jthenal of Natural Resthece Perspectives P. 56. 


FAO (2018). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018. Meeting the sustainable development goals. Rome. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. 



FAO (2017). Ending poverty and hunger by investing in agriculture and rural areas. Penang, Malaysia. 



FAO (2013). Mainstreaming gender in fisheries and aquaculture. A stock-taking and planning exercise. Final Report, Rome, Italy. P. 55. ISBN 978-92-5-107473-2


FAO (2012). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. P. 209. ISSN 1020-5489


FAO (2011). The state of food and agriculture: Women in agriculture: Closing the gender gap for development, Rome, Italy. 



FAO (2010). The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Addressing food insecurity in protracted crises. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. ISBN 978-92-5-106610-2


Farnworth CR, Sultana N, Kantor P, Choudhury A (2015). Gender integration in aquaculture research and technology adoption processes: Lessons learned in Bangladesh. Penang, Malaysia: WorldFish. Working paper: 2015-17.


Gallant M (2019). Understanding gendered preferences for Climate-Smart Agriculture adoption in Malawi. Major Research Paper submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the Master of Arts in International Development and Globalization. University of Ottawa, Canada.


Genschick S, Marinda P, Tembo G, Kaminski AM, Thilsted SH (2018). Fish consumption in urban Lusaka: The need for aquaculture to improve targeting of the poor. Aquaculture 492:280-289. 


Gilbert RA, Sakala WD, Benson TD (2002). Gender analysis of a nationwide cropping system, trial survey in Malawi. African Studies Quarterly 6:1-2. Spring 2002 ISSN: 2152-2448


Githukia CM, Obiero KO, Manyala JO, Ngugi CC, Quagrainie KK (2014). Consumer perceptions and preferences of wild and farmed Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) and African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) in urban centres in Kenya. International Journal of Advanced Research 2(7):694-705. 


Harrison R, Leitch C, McAdam M (2016). Identity work and the development of entrepreneurial leadership: does gender matter? In: T. Nelson, K. Lewis, & C. Henry (Eds.), Global female entrepreneurship handbook. London: Routledge.


Harrison E (2000). Gender, rights and poverty issues: Lessons for the sector, Background paper for DFID/FGRP-3/ARP Workshop on practical strategies for poverty targeted research, 7-11 November, Overseas Development Institute.


Harrison E (1995). Fish and feminists. IDS Bulletin 26(3):39-47. Institute of Development Studies. 


Hejase AJ, Hejase HJ (2013). Research Methods: A practical approach for business students (2nd edition). Philadelphia, PA, USA: Masadir Inc.


HLPE (2014). Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security. Rome, Italy 2014.


Holden ST, Shiferaw B, Pender J (2001). Market imperfections and profitability of land use in the Ethiopian Highlands: A comparison of selection Models with heteroskedasticity. Journal of Agricultural Economics 52(2):53-70.


Ikiara MM (1999). Sustainability, livelihoods, production and effort supply in a declining fishery: The case of Kenya's Lake Victoria Fisheries. University of Amsterdam. PhD Thesis.


Jamal H (2008). Exploring the impact of microfinance in Pakistan. Research Report No. 77. Karachi: Social Policy and Development Centre. 



Kabeer N (2001). Conflicts over credit: Re-evaluating the empowerment potential of loans to women in Rural Bangladesh. World Development 29(1):63-84. 


KIT, Agri-ProFocus, IIRR (2012). Challenging chains to change: Gender equity in agricultural value chain development. KIT Publishers, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam. 


Kiumbuku S, Mutinda J, Bernard J (2013). Forms of gender inequalities in fish farming in Kwanza Division, Trans Nzoia County, Kenya. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences 3(15):1-9. ISSN 2222-1719.


KMAP, Kenya Market-Led Aquaculture Programme (2016). Gender impact Study Submitted by ETC East Africa to Farm Africa. P. 24.


KMFRI (2017). Kenya's Aquaculture Brief 2017: Status, Trends, Challenges and Future Outlook. Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Mombasa, Kenya. P. 12.


KPHC (2019). Kenya Population and Housing Census. Volume I: Population by County and Sub-County, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. November, 2019. Nairobi, Kenya.


Kruijssen F, McDougal CL, van Asseldonk IJM (2018). Gender and aquaculture value chains: A review of key issues and implications for research. Aquaculture 493:328-337.


Kruijssen F, Albert JA, Morgan M, Boso D, Siota, F, Sibiti S, Schwarz AJ (2013). Livelihoods, markets, and gender roles in Solomon Islands: Case studies from Western and Isabel Provinces. Penang, Malaysia: CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. Project Report: AAS-2013-22.


Kumar G, Engle C, Tucker C (2018). Factors driving aquaculture technology adoption. Journal of World Aquaculture Society 49:447-476.


Kundu R, Muchiri M, Njiru M, Nyamweya C (2016). Effect of social and economic drivers on success of small scale fish farming in Western Kenya. African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries 14:29-44. 



Lawless S, Cohen P, McDougall C, Orirana G, Siota F, Doyle K (2019). Gender norms and relations: implications for agency in coastal livelihoods. Maritime Studies, 


Lewis D (1997). Rethinking aquaculture for resthece-poor farmers: Perspectives from Bangladesh. Food Policy 22(6):533-546.


Lwenya CA, Lwenya KR, Abila R, Omwenga R (2006). Gender participation in Fisheries Management in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute. 



Lwenya C, Abila R (2000). The Gender role in fish processing and trading practices in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Kenya. Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute. 


Malhotra A, Schuler RS, Boender C (2002). Measuring women's empowerment as a variable in international development. Washington, DC: World Bank. 



Mayoux L (2006). Gender mainstreaming in value chain development: Experience with gender action learning system in Uganda. Enterprise Development and Microfinance Journal GALS experience Practical Action P. 15.


Medard M, Sobo F, Ngatunga T, Chirwa S (2001). Women and gender participation in the fisheries sector in Lake Victoria. 6th Asian Fisheries Forum. Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 29 November, 2001.


Me-Nsope N, Larkins M (2015). Gender analysis of the pigeon pea value chain: Case study of Malawi. Center Report Series, No. 4. Global Center for Food Systems Innovation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. ISBN: 978-0-9903005-5-7


Mizan AN (1993). Women's decision-making power in rural Bangladesh: A case study of Grameen. In: AbuWahid, (ed.) The Grameen Bank: the poverty relief in Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh: West View Press. pp. 97-126.


Mucai M, Wangila BC, Norman N (2011). Factors determining structure and development of fish farming among small scale operators in Western Kenya. In Samaki News: Aquaculture Development in Kenya towards Food Security, Poverty Alleviation and Wealth Creation 7(1):30-45.


Munguti JM, Obiero KO, Orina PS, Musa S, Mwaluma J, Mirera DO, Ochiewo J, Kairo J, Njiru JM (2017). State of Aquaculture in Kenya. Laxpress Services, Nairobi, Kenya P. 133.


Munguti JM, Ogello EO, Kim J (2014). An overview of Kenyan aquaculture: Current status, challenges and opportunities for future development. Jthenal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 17(1):1-11.


Ndanga LZB, Quagrainie KK, Dennis JH (2013). Economically feasible options for increased women participation in Kenyan Aquaculture value chain. Aquaculture 415:183-190.


Ngugi CC, Fitzsimmons K, Manyala J, Bundi JM, Kimotho AN, Amadiva JM, Ndogoni JN, Munguti J (2018). Assessment of growth performance of monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in cages using low-cost, locally produced supplemental feeds and training fish farmers on best management practices in Kenya. Project Report. Sustainable Feed Technology and Nutrient Input Systems/SFT/13SFT06AU.


Nyandat B, Owiti G (2013). Aquaculture needs assessment mission report. Report/Rapport: SF-FAO/2013/24. September/Septembre 2013. FAO-SmartFish Programme of the Indian Ocean Commission, Ebene, Mauritius.


Obiero KO, Waidbacher H, Nyawanda BO, Munguti JM, Manyala JO, Kaunda-Arara B (2019). Predicting uptake of aquaculture technologies among smallholder fish farmers in Kenya. Aquaculture International 27:1689-1707.


Obwanga B, Rurangwa E, Soma K, Kilelu C (2018). A comparative study of aquaculture sector development in Egypt, Ghana and Nigeria: Insights for Kenya's sustainable domestic sector development. Wageningen University and Research. Research Report 006.


Obwanga B, Lewo MR (2017). From aid to responsible trade: driving competitive aquaculture sector development in Kenya; Quick scan of robustness, reliability and resilience of the aquaculture sector. Wageningen University and Research, Report 2017-092 3R Kenya


Okechi JK (2004). Profitability assessment: A case study of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) farming in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. (Master's thesis, The United Nations Univerist


Ole-Moiyoi LK (2017). Fishing for answers: can aquaculture transform food security in rural Kenya? PhD Dissertation. Standford University, Stanford, USA. P. 163.


Olufayo M (2012). The gender roles of women in aquaculture and food security in Nigeria. Visible possibilities: The economics of sustainable fisheries, aquaculture and seafood trade: Proceedings of the Sixteenth Biennial Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade, July 16-20, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Edited by Ann L. Shriver. International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade (IIFET), Corvallis, USA.


Peterman A, Behrman J, Quisumbing A (2010). A review of empirical evidence on gender differences in non-land agricultural inputs, technology, and services in developing countries', IFPRI Discussion Paper 975. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. 


Phillips M, Subasinghe RP, Tran N, Kassam L, Chan CY (2016). Aquaculture big numbers. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 601. FAO, Rome, Italy. 



Rubin D, Manfre C, Barrett K (2009). Promoting gender equitable opportunities in agricultural value chains. Handbook, Washington, DC, USA.


Rutaisire J, Kabonesa C, Okechi JK, Boera PN (2010). Lake Victoria Basin: Gender issues in fish farming. In: Flintan, F., Tedla, S. (Eds.), Natural Resthece Management. The impact of Gender and Social Issues. Published by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).


Schumacher KP (2014). Gender relations in global agri-food value chains-A review. Erde. 


SDF, State Department of Fisheries (2012). Fisheries Annual Statistical Bulletin 2012. Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Nairobi, Kenya.


Sexsmith KSC, Speller W (2017). How to improve gender equality in agriculture, Investment in agriculture policy brief No 5. International Institute for Sustainable Development.


van Eerdewijk A, Wong F, Vaast C, Newton J, Tyszler M, Pennington A (2017). White Paper: A conceptual model of women and girls' empowerment. Technical Report. March, 2017. 



Veliu A, Gessese N, Ragasa C, Okali C (2009). Gender analysis of aquaculture value chain in Northeast Vietnam and Nigeria. Agriculture and Rural Development, Discussion Paper 44. The World Bank, Washington. 


UNDP, United Nations Development Program (2018). Human development indices and indicators: 2018 statistical update. New York.


Weeratunge N, Chiuta T, Choudhury A (2012). Transforming aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) towards gender equality: A five country review. Working Paper, CRP1.3 Aquatic Agricultural Systems, The WorldFish Center, Penang. P. 83.


Weeratunge-Starkloff N, Pant J (2011). Gender and aquaculture: Sharing the benefits equitably. The WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia. Issues Brief, 2011-32. P. 12.


Weeratunge N, Snyder KA, Choo PS (2010). Gleaner, fisher, trader, processor: understanding gendered employment in fisheries and aquaculture. Fish and Fisheries 11:405-420.


Weeratunge N, Snyder KA (2009). Gleaner, fisher, trader, processor: Understanding gendered employment in the fisheries and aquaculture sector. Paper presented at the FAO-IFAD-ILO Workshop on "Gaps, trends and current research in gender dimensions of agricultural and rural employment: differentiated pathways out of poverty", Rome, 31st March-2nd April 2009.


Williams SB (2000). Economic potentials of women in small scale fisheries in West Africa. Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. IIFET 2000 Proceedings.


World Bank (2012). World Development Report, 2012: Gender equality and development. World Bank; Washington, DC: 



Yin RK (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (4th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.