African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12269

Full Length Research Paper

High proportion of mosquito vectors in Zika forest, Uganda, feeding on humans has implications for the spread of new arbovirus pathogens

Kaddumukasa A. Martha
  • Kaddumukasa A. Martha
  • College of Natural Sciences, School of BioSciences, Department of Biological Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Arbovirology, Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI), P.O. Box 49 Entebbe, Uganda.
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Kayondo K. Jonathan
  • Kayondo K. Jonathan
  • Department of Entomology, Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI), P.O. Box 49 Entebbe, Uganda.
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Masiga Daniel
  • Masiga Daniel
  • International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) African Insect Science for Food and Health P. O Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
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Akol M. Anne
  • Akol M. Anne
  • College of Natural Sciences, School of BioSciences, Department of Biological Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
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Lutwama J. Julius
  • Lutwama J. Julius
  • Department of Arbovirology, Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI), P.O. Box 49 Entebbe, Uganda.
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Masembe Charles*
  • Masembe Charles*
  • College of Natural Sciences, School of BioSciences, Department of Biological Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
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  •  Received: 05 February 2015
  •  Accepted: 13 April 2015
  •  Published: 22 April 2015

Abstract

There is a steady increase in the contact between humans and wildlife, brought about by encroachment, destruction of natural forests, climatic and environmental changes. Mosquitoes get exposed to hosts and pathogens; creating possibilities for new disease patterns. Therefore, the identification of blood-meal sources is important to determine the linkages between hosts and vectors. Engorged mosquitoes were collected in Zika forest (Uganda) for a period of 12 months using carbon dioxide (CO2)-baited light traps. Total genomic DNA was extracted from the abdominal contents of the mosquitoes and the diagnostic regions of the mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and cytochrome b (cytb) sequenced. The sequences were subsequently blasted in the GenBank. Sequence analyses revealed that feeds were derived from mammalian and avian hosts. Blood-meal sources from Aedes africanus (Theobold) examined were entirely human. There were significant differences between host species from which the mosquito species fed (Krusakal Wallis test, χ2 = 19.118, df = 5, p = 0.018). Several mosquitoes were considered as potential bridge vectors for a number of arboviruses and other diseases have been collected from the forest. Taking of mammalian origin blood-meals, including humans, may facilitate exposure to new pathogens and disease patterns.

 

Key words: Blood-meal, bridge vectors, cytochrome oxidase sub unit I, cytochrome b, Entebbe.