The need to fulfil and address the United Nations millennium goals in developing countries is essential and recently nanotechnology has proved and shown potential to change and improve many sectors of African industry, from consumer products to health care to transportation, energy and agriculture. In addition to these societal benefits, nanotechnology presents new opportunities to improve how we measure, monitor, manage, and minimize contaminants in the environment. This article then provides an extensive review of research needs for both environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology in Africa countries. The review evaluates water purification technology, nano health, food security and risk assessment. It was concluded that, nanotechnology is the future solution, however, countries must embrace the emerging technology with symbiotic involvement with scientific, industrial and institutional sectors.
Key words: Nanotechnology, nanoparticles, African countries, risk assessment.
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