Industrialization has come with environmental challenges. Industries like paper, printing, textile, leather and so on widely use chemical dyes whose waste treatment or degradability is difficult. Among various methods employed, the use of microbial enzymes is the most effective. The study aimed at producing laccase from identified yeast strains for potential industrial use in dye decolourization. Laccase produced by Kluyveromyces dobzhanskii DW1 and Pichia manshurica DW2 were purified and immobilized up to 65.2 and 73.1%, respectively. The crude, purified and immobilized forms of the enzymes were used to decolourize malachite green and methyl red dyes each at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 g/L. The highest percentage decolourization by K. dobzhanskii DW1 was 81.50% (immobilized) and 87.50% (purified), respectively for malachite green and methyl red dyes while P. manshurica DW2b (crude) had 84.40 and 76.89%, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of the dyes was collected within a scanning range of 4000 to 400 cm-1. The spectrum of methyl red dye by the purified K. dobzhanskii DW1 laccase showed disappearance of some chemical groups (peak), while the crude P. manshurica DW2 laccase removed the main azo-group, alcohol/phenol and higher alkane (1487.17) groups. The spectrum of untreated malachite green also showed 25 peaks with one disulphide, 2 aliphatic halogens, 2 thio ethers, 3 sulphones, 4 imino groups among other chemical groups. The decolourization of the dye with the immobilized K. dobzhanskii DW1 laccase showed a spectrum of 17 peaks with the removal of the disulphide (420.5), one aliphatic halogen (C-I), thio ether, 2 sulphone, 4 imino and 2 higher alkanes, while the crude P. manshurica DW2 laccase removed the 2 aliphatic halogen, 4 imino, 1 amine, 2 alkane and 2 of the 3 alcohol/phenol chemical groups. The removal of the main components (azo chemical group) of the dyes proved their effectiveness in decolourisation and bioremediation of the textile wastes.
Key words: Decolourisation, azo-dye, laccase, immobilized, FT-IR spectra.
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