Ginsenosides (G) are biologically active saponin compounds found in Panax ginseng. Although these compounds are reported to possess numerous biological activities, recent issues have arisen regarding their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory roles in inflammatory cells. This is because 1) inflammation, managed by a large amount of different pro-inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2, is now considered as a principle cause of most immunological diseases, such as cancer and autoimmunity; and 2) some ginsenosides (e.g., G-Rb1, G-Rd and G-Rh2) can modulate these phenomena effectively by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators through suppressing the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kB and its upstream signaling cascade. This review, therefore, discusses the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenosides in detail and proposes the possibility that ginsenosides, or their derivatives, can be developed as pharmaceutically useful drugs against NF-kB-mediated inflammatory diseases.
Key words: Ginseng saponin, ginsenoside, inflammation, tumor necrosis factor-a, nitric oxide, prostaglandin.
Copyright © 2022 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0