Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) is an African legume with a great nutritional, economic and social potential. However, one of the main constraints to this crop is viral diseases which reduced yields. Indeed, approximately 12 viruses have been reported to infect bambara groundnut. Among these, only four were reported from Burkina Faso, namely, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), bean common mosaic virus strain-blackeye cowpea mosaic (BCMV-BlCM), peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), and cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV). This study was carried out in order to identify and characterize the main viruses occurring in bambara groundnut from Burkina Faso using serological and molecular tests. 140 plants were sampled in the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Both Potyvirus CABMV and BCMV-BlCM were identified in 8.57% of the samples when double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) test was used and 14.29% of the samples when reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test was used. Phylogenetic tree based on 476 nt in coat protein showed that all Burkina Faso CABMV isolates clustered together with Uganda isolate (KT726938). However, two groups were distinguished within these isolates. Burkina Faso BCMV-BlCM isolates are strengthly clustered with BCMV and BlCMV group. This study reports the first molecular characterization of CABMV and BCMV-BlCM infecting Bambara groundnut in Burkina Faso.
Key words: Bambara groundnut, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), bean common mosaic virus strain-blackeye cowpea mosaic (BCMV-BlCM), double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
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