African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12258

Review

Pharmacological properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale)

Aracelli de Sousa Leite
  • Aracelli de Sousa Leite
  • Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piauí)- 64.049-550, Brazil.
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Md. Torequl Islam
  • Md. Torequl Islam
  • Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piauí)- 64.049-550, Brazil.
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Antonio Luiz Gomes Junior
  • Antonio Luiz Gomes Junior
  • Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piauí)- 64.049-550, Brazil.
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Joao Marcelo de Castro e Sousa
  • Joao Marcelo de Castro e Sousa
  • Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Picos (Piauí)-64.049-550, Brazil.
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Marcus Vinicius Oliveira Barros de Alencar
  • Marcus Vinicius Oliveira Barros de Alencar
  • Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piauí)- 64.049-550, Brazil.
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Marcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz
  • Marcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz
  • Laboratory of Toxicology and Genetics, Post-Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piauí)-64.009-550, Brazil.
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Hercilia Maria Lins Rolim
  • Hercilia Maria Lins Rolim
  • Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piauí)- 64.049-550, Brazil.
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Maria das Gracas Freire de Medeiros
  • Maria das Gracas Freire de Medeiros
  • Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piauí)- 64.049-550, Brazil.
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Ana Amelia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
  • Ana Amelia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
  • Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piauí)- 64.049-550, Brazil.
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Jose Arimateia Dantas Lopes
  • Jose Arimateia Dantas Lopes
  • Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piauí)- 64.049-550, Brazil.
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  •  Received: 15 October 2015
  •  Accepted: 03 August 2016
  •  Published: 31 August 2016

Abstract

Anacardium occidentale L. is a tree native to Brazil, which is rich in phenolic lipids. Nowadays, the cashew bark (Cashew Nut Shell Liquid) has received great attention in the pharmaceutical industry, due to its economy, abundance and important chemical compounds. Net of cashew nut shell is classified according to the method of production of: (1) net of the shell of natural cashew nut (60-65% anacardic acid; 15-20% cardol and 10% of cardanol) and (2) liquid from the technical cashew nut shell (60-65% of cardanol, 15-20% cardol and 10% of polymeric material). This work aims to report the pharmacological properties of liquids from cashew nut shells. Results suggest that both liquids have antifungal, antibacterial, antiparasitic, anti-tumor, antiulcerogenic, molluscicides, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Natural cashew nut liquid is non-genotoxic, whereas technical liquid is genotoxic in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, although there is no evidence of their mutagenic effects on eukaryotic cells. In conclusion, the excellent antioxidant and non-mutagenic activities of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)  provide opportunities for CNSL in the cosmetic and/or pharmaceutical industries, but continuous study is needed to allow safe and efficacious preparations.

 

Key words: Cashew liquid, cosmetics, pharmacological, pharmaceutical, preparation.