African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12484

Full Length Research Paper

Bioethanol sources in Pakistan: A renewable energy resource

Rahmat Ali Khan1*, Allah Nawaz Khan1, Mushtaq Ahmed1, Muhammad Rashid Khan2, Mir Sadiq Shah1, Nasir Azam1, Farheen Sadullah1, Fazal Dian1 , Sami Ullah1, and Nisar Khan1
1Department of Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology Bannu, KPK, Pakistan. 2Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 31 October 2011
  •  Published: 30 December 2011


Demand of bioethanol is increasing rapidly as fuel to replace the use of gasoline due to the recent debates on environmental issues and in the increase of gas prices. To combat these threats, bioethanol and biodiesel are being produced as alternative fuel sources. A wide range of substances can be used for bioethanol production. Biofuel in form of bioethanol can be produced using agricultural wastes by the use of enzymes, and hence the main objective of this approach is to get benefit of the agricultural wastes. The basic steps included in ethanol production from agricultural wastes composed of milling/grinding, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, purification/distillation and the last step is hydration. In every step, there are various strategies to increase bioethanol production and its usefulness. Bioethanol fuel obtained from starchy and lignocelluloses agricultural biomass is being gradually improved to minimize the use of petroleum due to decrease in the petroleum resources, and to diminish the effect of petrol on the environment.


Key words: Bioethanol, alternative fuel sources, fermentation