African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 16 November 2006; 5(22)

November 2006

RAPD markers associated with resistance to blackleg disease in Brassica species

Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a serious disease of Brassica species. Genetic analysis of resistance to L. maculans was carried out with 15 accessions from the USDA Brassica germplasm collections, representing diploids (A, C), and tetraploid (AC) genomes, respectively; and 9 cultivars from the National Winter Canola Variety Trials (NWCVT) all carrying AC genomes. All genotypes were screened for blackleg...

Author(s):  Anthony O. Ananga, Ernst Cebert, Khairy Soliman, Ramesh Kantety, R. P. Pacumbaba and Koffi Konan

November 2006

Somatic chromosome counts and yield performance of some accessions of ‘egusi’ melon (Citrullus lanatus)

Investigation in 20 accessions of Citrullus lanatus (‘egusi’ melon) revealed somatic chromosome counts ranging from 18 to 24 with 2n = 22 being the most frequent. Polyploid counts of 2n = 40 and 2n = 44 were made for accessions DD98/4 and L6, respectively. Diploid chromosome counts varying from 2n = 22 suggest aneuploid changes in chromosome number or can be attributed to counting difficulties...

Author(s): E. O. Idehen, O. B. Kehinde and A. E. Adegbite

November 2006

Municipal landfill leachates induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells

This study examined the potential mutagenic effects of raw and simulated leachates from Olushosun municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill using rat bone marrow chromosome aberration assay. Raw leachate obtained directly from the landfill and simulated leachate obtained via the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) category-A extraction procedure were examined for their physical and chemical properties. Rats...

Author(s): C. G. Alimba, A. A. Bakare and C. A. Latunji

November 2006

RFLP of analyses of an intergenic spacer region of chloroplast DNA in some wild wheat species

Several studies are being made to get high productive wheats throughout the world because they provide the most of human energy and protein needs. In this study, 11 wheat species of Triticum and Aegilops were investigated. One of the intergenic regions of cpDNA was studied. This region was amplified with PCR and digested with 6 restriction endonucleases...

Author(s): Ozgul Kucuk, Selma Gulbıttı-Onarıcı and  Sıbel Sumer

November 2006

Frequency distribution 0f ABO, RH blood groups and blood genotypes among the cell biology and genetics students of University of Lagos, Nigeria

One hundred and fifty students (150) were randomly selected from the Department of Cell Biology and Genetics of University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria for ABO, RH blood groups and 9 haemoglobin genotypes studies. Blood group O was the highest with the percentage frequency of 55.3%, followed by blood group A (25.5%), B (16.7%) and the least percentage frequency was blood group AB which is 2.7%.  The RhD distribution...

Author(s): ADEYEMO, Oyenike A and SOBOYEJO, Omolade B.

November 2006

Interchromosomal connections and metaphase 1 clumping in meiosis of two Capsicum Linn. species in Nigeria

The occurrence of interchromosomal connections in two species of Capsicum;Capsicum annuum L. and Capsicum frutescence L., from Nigeria is reported. Clumping of metaphase 1 chromosomes is also reported for these two species. The degrees of incidence of the interchromosomal connections and metaphase 1 chromosomes clumping have been determined. The probable relationship between the chromosomal...

Author(s): FALUSI, O. A.

November 2006

Poly-b-hydroxybutyrate accumulation and releasing by hydrogen producing bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001. A transmission electron microscopic study

Photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 that is used for photobiohydrogen production can also accumulate poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) asa by-product when cultivated anaerobically with minimal medium containing L-malic acid, sodium glutamate and some vitamins under illumination. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that PHB granules are made of two distinct components: a homogenous...


November 2006

Mycological evaluation of a ground cocoa-based beverage

Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are processed into cocoa beverage through fermentation, drying, roasting and grounding of the seed to powder. The mycological quality of 39 samples of different brand of these cocoa – based beverage referred to as ‘eruku oshodi’ collected from 3 different markets in south – west Nigeria was determined by serial dilution using the pour plate method on Potato...

Author(s): T.O. OYETUNJI

November 2006

Microorganisms associated with the preparation of plantain pudding in Western Nigeria

The microbiological and physico-chemical quality of plantain pudding was evaluated during processing and storage under ambient temperature (30.5°C) for 120 h duration. Results indicates that the total viable bacteria count decreased from 1.36 x 105 cfu/g (raw sample) to 0.3 x 101 cfu/g after cooking and thereafter increase steadily to 1.05 x 108 cfu/g while the total fungi count decreased from 2.70 x...

Author(s): Ohenhen, R. E., Enweani, I. B., Ogiehor, S. I.  and Uwabor, K.

November 2006

Studies on bacterial flora and biological control agent of Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

In the present study, in order to find a more effective and safe biological control agent against Cydia pomonella, we investigated the bacterial flora and tested them for insecticidal effects on this insect. According to morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, bacterial flora were identified as Proteus rettgeri (Cp1), Eschericia coli (Cp2), Pseudomonas stutzeri (Cp3), Pseudomonas aeroginosa...

Author(s): Ömer Ertürk and Zihni DemirbaÄŸ

November 2006

The effects of seedbed types on yam-minisetts yield: A case study of Ushongo local government area of Benue state of Nigeria

The effects of seedbed types on yields of yam-minisetts were studied in field trials at the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Research farm in 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons.  The results indicated that the raised flattened top beds improved yam minisett emergence count by 22%, establishment by 23%, total tuber number by 24%, and yield of minisetts by 21% over the ridge system. Generally, higher number of ware yam...

Author(s): IJOYAH, M.O., ABA , J.  AND  UGANNYAN, S. 

November 2006

Isolation of low erucic acid-containing genotype of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea Czern. and Coss.) through F1 hybrid anther culture

Reciprocal crosses were done between two cultivars; cv. RJ15 and cv. RLM198 of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Anther derived lines designated as A1 plants, were raised through anther culture from these F1 hybrid plants. 45% germination was obtained from distinctly shriveled and small A1 seeds and grown along with the F2 plants in the same agro-climatic conditions. Subsequently the lines were...

Author(s): Amitava Roy# and P. K. Saha

November 2006

In vitro vegetative growth and flowering of olive tree in response to GA3 treatment

The phytohormone gibberellin is involved in the regulation of many physiological process including flower induction and shoot growth. In this study, gibberellic acid (GA3) was used in order to induce the reversion of olive tree vegetative buds towards a floral ones in vitro. For this, six varieties (Marsaline, Chemchali, Picholine, Chemlali, Zalmati and Oueslati ) was tested and explants, consisting of a...

Author(s): A. Chaari-Rkhis, M. Maalej, S. Ouled Messaoud and N. Drira

November 2006

Inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 against Listeria monocytogenes and ST2-verotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157

A bacteriocin-producing strain of Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 isolated from raw meat was shown to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes and pathogenic strains ofEscherichia coli by the well diffusion assay. To confirm whether the bacteriocin was involved in E. coli O157 inhibition, growth of the pathogen was monitored in the neutralized cell-free supernatant (NCFS) pre-treated with...


November 2006

Physiological effect of the toxin from Xanthomonas retroflexus on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)

A new toxin from Xanthomonas retroflexus could cause a series of physiological responses on seedlings of redroot pigweed. The experimental results revealed that respiratory ratio first increased 106% after treatment with the CFS (concentrated centrifugal fermentation supernatants) of X. retroflexus for 2 h, and decreased after treatment for 3 h; peroxidase (POD) activity increased 30% and 50% after...

Author(s): Zi-Ling Sun, Ming-Zhi Li, Jie Chen and Yong-Quan Li

November 2006

Screening of UV-irradiated and S-2-aminoethyl-L-cysteine resistant mutants of Bacillus megaterium for improved lysine accumulation

The screening of UV irradiated and aminoethyl-l-cysteine resistant (AECR) mutants of Bacillus megaterium strains for improved lysine accumulation was conducted. The mutants, MR-10 and MR-25 derived form irradiated cultures of B.megaterium SP 76, and MS-3 and MS-5 derived form B. megaterium SP 86 produced higher lysine levels than the parent strains. In contrast, however, lysine...

Author(s): I. A. Ekwealor and J. A. N. Obeta

November 2006

The antimicrobial properties of Ocimum gratissimum extracts on some selected bacterial gastrointestinal isolates

The antimicrobial efficacy of cold and hot water, hexane and methanolic extracts of fresh and dried leaf of Ocimum gratissimum against Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, and Aeromonas hydrophila were determined using the Agar gel diffusion method. The zones of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal...

Author(s): JUNAID, S. A. , OLABODE, A. O., ONWULIRI, F. C., OKWORI, A. E. J. and AGINA S. E.

November 2006

Antimicrobial potential of extracts and fractions of the African walnut, Tetracarpidium conophorum

Antibacterial and antifungal evaluation of the leaf, stem bark, kernel and root methanol extracts as well as the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of the leaf of Tetracarpidium conophorum, the African walnut, were investigated using the agar cup diffusion and agar broth dilution techniques. Extracts and fractions were tested against four clinical strains of 2 Gram positive, 2 Gram negative...

Author(s): E. O. Ajaiyeoba and D. A. Fadare

November 2006

The effect of some fixatives on the staining ability of Sorghum bicolor extracts on tissue sections

The effect of some fixatives on the staining reactions of the extracts of Sorghum bicolor on tissue sections was studied in order to identify the most appropriate fixative for the stain. Tissue sections taken at postmortem were fixed in 10% formol saline, Carnoy’s fluid, Bouin’s fluid, Formol sublimate, Heidenhain’s susa and Zenker’s fixative. The sections were subsequently stained with...


November 2006

Effects of some processing methods on the toxic components of African breadfruit (Treculia africana)

A variety of breadfruit (Var africana) was evaluated for the presence of some anti-nutrients.  It was found to contain some hydrogen cyanide (26.45 mg/kg), tannin (184.10 mg/g), starchyose (1.8%) and rafffinose (1.01%). Different methods of processing such as fermentation, boiling, autoclaving and germination was found to have effect on the anti-nutritional factors. Fermentation for 48 h reduced hydrogen cyanide...

Author(s): Ugwu, F. M. and Oranye, N. A.

November 2006

Assessment of the quality of ogi made from malted millet

Ogi, a cereal fermented paste was produced from millet containing different levels (0, 5, 10%) of millet malts. Proximate composition of the ogi samples determined using the AOAC method showed increase in moisture, protein, ash and crude fibre contents with increasing malting levels. The increased protein value is a striking observation that could be advantageously utilized to improve nutrition of infants, and children...

Author(s): C. U. INYANG and C. A. IDOKO

November 2006

Properties of in situ Escherichia coli β-D-glucuronidase (GUS): evaluation of chemical interference on the direct enzyme assay for faecal pollution detection in water

A study of the activity of Escherichia coli β-D-glucuronidase (GUS) in polluted stagnant and running water samples was performed with an objective of assessing the viability of direct marker enzyme assays as a suitable alternative to membrane filtration for the indication of faecal pollution in water intended for drinking purposes.  The effects of temperature, pH and the presence of different ions on...

Author(s): Chamunorwa Aloius Togo, Victor Collins Wutor and Brett Ivan Pletschke

November 2006

Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis genes in transgenic maize by the PCR method and FTA paper technology

We optimized the PCR method to detect genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize in open quarantine fields in Kenya. Many factors affect the extraction of the DNA from plants, such as the amount of tissue available, the condition of the plant material, the numbers of steps involved in the extraction procedure, and the required purity needed. We tested the application of the FTA paper technology...

Author(s): Jedidah W. Danson, , Michael Kimani and Mercy Mbogori

November 2006

Ultrastuctural study of the phagocytic activities of splenic macrophages in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

The main stages of the phagocytic process after the intraperitoneal injection of colloidal carbon to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was ultra-structurally documented. Carbon particles were initially in diffuse form in the cytoplasm but they gradually formed discrete electron dense bodies that later fused with cyto-plasmic granules to form phagolysosomes. Ultra structural results demonstrate that colloidal...

Author(s): Samuel Adewumi AGBEDE, Olanike Kudirat ADEYEMO, Olufemi Bolarinwa ADEDEJI, Abdulkadir Usman JUNAID