African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12212

Table of Content: 17 September 2008; 7(18)

September 2008

Bioaccumulation of metals from tannery sludge by Typha angustifolia L.

  The metal bioaccumulation capability of a common anchored hydrophyte, Typha angustifolia L. was studied in a green house trial. The plants could absorb significant amounts of the heavy metals like chromium, copper and zinc from tannery sludge. Different concentrations of tannery sludge were prepared in water and plants of T. angustifolia were exposed to the sludge for 30, 60 and 90 days. A...

Author(s): Firdaus-e-Bareen and Sheza Khilji

September 2008

Clinical and diagnostic importance of proteinuria: A review

  A continual function of the kidney is essential to good health playing active roles in urine formation. Under normal physiological state urine is expected to be protein free. The production of protein free urine is exclusively carried out by the kidney nephrons. Nephrons are structured to perform an important role of filtration and reabsorption. Therefore, a defective or diseased kidney is associated with...

Author(s): Oni M. O. and Oguntibeju O. O.

September 2008

Safety evaluation of the extract from the shoots of Arctotis arctotoides in rats and mice

  The aqueous extract from the shoot of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O. Hoffm (Asteraceae) was evaluated for its acute toxicity by the oral route in mice and for the sub-acute effect on haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters in rats. In the acute toxicity test, A. arctotoides caused no death even up to 3200 mg/kg dose. Oral treatments with this extract at 500, 1,000 and...

Author(s):   Jimoh, F. O., Adedapo, A. A., Sofidiya, M. O., Masika, P. J. and Afolayan, A. J.

September 2008

Transfer of tetracycline resistance gene (tetr) between replicons in some enteric bacteria of diarrhoeal origin from some hospitals in South-South, Nigeria

  From April to June 2005, a total of 120 feacal samples were obtained from diarrheagenic patients (0-5 years) attending Baptist Medical Center, Eku (BMC), Central Hospital, Agbor (CHA) and University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City (UBTH). These were screened for the presence of bacteria that could cause diarrhoea. The enteric organisms isolated included Escherichia coli,...

Author(s): E.E. Akortha and O. S. Egbule

September 2008

Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and “wonder-cure” concoction used in Nigeria unorthodox medicine for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from tuberculosis patients sputum

  The antimicrobial activity of extracts of twelve Nigerian medicinal plant species and a “wonder cure” concoction (Epa–Ijebu) used in traditional medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis and cough were screened for activity against Mycobacterium  tuberculosisisolated from tuberculosis patient sputum and the control strains of M. tuberculosis(H37RV). Both ethanolic and...

Author(s): I. A. Adeleye, C. C. Onubogu, C. I. Ayolabi, A. O. Isawumi and M. E. Nshiogu

September 2008

Iron chelating activity, phenol and flavonoid content of some medicinal plants from Iran

  Thalassemia major is characterized by anemia, iron overload, further potentiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damage to major organs, especially the cardiovascular system. Antioxidant and other supportive therapies protect red blood cells (RBC) against antioxidant damage. Chelation therapy reduces iron-related complications and thereby improves quality of life and overall survival. The poor oral...

Author(s): Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Fereshteh Pourmorad and Ahmad Reza Bekhradnia

September 2008

AFLP analysis among Ethiopian arabica coffee genotypes

  Knowledge of genetic diversity is vital for genetic improvement and germplasm conservation. The genetic relationship of 28 Coffea arabica genotypes from Ethiopia was assessed using 10 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) primer combinations. The level of polymorphism was 30.9% and 18 markers were unique to 10 genotypes. Pair-wise genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.851 to 0.982,...

Author(s): Yigzaw Dessalegn, L. Herselman and M. T. Labuschagne

September 2008

CRY 1AB transgenic cowpea obtained by nodal electroporation

  Electroporation-mediated genetic transformation was used to introduce Cry 1 Abinsecticidal gene into cowpea. Nodal buds were electroporated in planta with a plasmid carrying the Cry 1Ab and antibiotic resistance npt II genes driven by a 35S CaMV promoter. T1 seeds derived from electroporated branches were selected in vitro on a medium containing geneticin. PCR...

Author(s): Adenubi Adesoye, Jesse Machuka  and  Adeniyi Togun

September 2008

Efficient method for the extraction of genomic DNA from wormwood (Artemisia capillaris)

  Suitable method for isolation of genomic DNA is really important. The best method can make the best result for genetic study. About five differences methods were used amongst which were Sarkosyl Method, CTAB method, Kit Method, SDS Method and Phenol-Chloroform Method. Isolated genomic DNA showed high purity and high quantity in Sarkosyl method compare the other methods. The Sarkosyl DNA isolation method is...

Author(s): Sayed M. Zain Hasan, Mohammad Shafie B. Shafie and Ramisah M. Shah

September 2008

Nuclear ribosomal DNA diversity of a cotton pest (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in the United States

  The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) has emerged as a major cotton pest in the United States. A recent analysis of over 20 amphimictic populations of this pest from the US and three other countries has shown no sequence variation at the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) despite the region’s usual variability. We investigated this unexpected outcome by amplifying, cloning...

Author(s):   Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Alabama A and M University, P.O. Box Normal, AL , U.S.A. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL , U.S.A. Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL , U.S.A. Centre for Plant Conservation Genetics, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW Australia.

September 2008

Optimization of protease production by an actinomycete Strain, PS-18A isolated from an estuarine shrimp pond

  Actinomycetes were isolated from the sediment samples of an estuarine shrimp pond located along the south east coast of India. During the investigation, a total of 28 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and examined for their protease activity. Among them, one strain PS-18A which was tentatively identified as Streptomyces roseiscleroticusshowed higher protease activity with lower biomass and it was...

Author(s): G. Vonothini, M. Murugan, K. Sivakumar and S. Sudha

September 2008

Overexpression of an abiotic-stress inducible plant protein in the bacteria Escherichia coli

  The aim of our work was the overexpression of the abiotic stress-inducible dehydrin protein, namely RAB16A, from rice in the BL21 strain of Escherichia coli. The Rab16Atranscript of 0.5 Kbp was amplified from the total RNA of the salt-tolerant indica rice cultivar Nonabokra by RT-PCR and cloned into the expression vector pGEX-3X. The 47 kDa protein, expressed as GST: RAB16A fusion protein, after 2...

Author(s): Aryadeep Roychoudhury, and Supratim Basu

September 2008

Characteristics of protoplast inter, intra-fusant and regeneration of antagonistic fungi Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride

  A standard method for isolation, fusion and regeneration of protoplasts fromTrichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride was developed. The protoplasts fromT. harzianum and T. viride were isolated using Novozym 234 as lytic enzyme and potassium chloride as osmotic stabilizer. The maximum number of protoplasts (9.37 × 105/ml) was obtained from 16 h old mycelium...

Author(s): Natesan Balasubramanian and Damodaran Lalithakumari

September 2008

The role of phytohormone on the production of berberine in the calli cultures of an endangered medicinal plant, turmeric (Coscinium fenestratum l.)

  The present report for the first time describes the results of study aimed at evaluation of the role of phytohormones on the production of berberine from in vitro calli cultures. Calli cultures derived from leaf and petiole explants were established in MS medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) plus 6-benzylaminopurine(BAP) and/or kinetin (KN). Berberine an isoquinoline...

Author(s): Talat Khan, David Krupadanam and Syed Yousuf Anwar

September 2008

Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to gray leaf spot and common rust diseases of maize

  Gray leaf spot and common rust diseases can greatly reduce grain yield of maize in susceptible genotypes by between 10 and 70% on average. Control of these diseases through conventional measures has been quite ineffective and difficult to sustain. The most feasible way to control them is by breeding and deploying resistant maize genotypes. This study was carried out to evaluate germplasm for QTLs associated...

Author(s): Jedidah Danson, Martin Lagat, Michael Kimani and Alex Kuria

September 2008

The effect of sulphur applications on nutrient composition, yield and some yield components of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

  This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different sulphur applications on nutrient composition, yield and some yield components of barley during 2004-05 and 2005-06 winter seasons in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The trial was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results indicated that grain yield, plant height, spike lenght, number of seed per spike,...

Author(s): Yesim Togay, Necat Togay, Fatih Cig, Murat Erman and A. Esen Celen

September 2008

Allelopathic potential of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) on soil metals and its leaves extracts on physiology of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

  The effect of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) variety, namely Hysun 38, on metals and of aqueous extracts of its leaves on germination in two varieties of wheat, namely Margalla 99 and Chakwall 97, were studied under laboratory conditions. In particular, the effect of leaf extract on hormones produced by wheat seedlings and on electrical conductivity, pH, Mn, Ca, K, P, and soil moisture content was...

Author(s): Javed Kamal and Asghari Bano

September 2008

Mineralization and N-use efficiency of tree legume prunings from fertilizer tree systems and low quality crop residues in Malawi

  There is substantial evidence that fertilizer tree systems are capable of maintaining increased and sustainable crop production on low fertility soils in southern Africa, thus reducing the required amount of chemical fertilizer. However, crop yield increase in soils amended by fertilizer tree systems can only be optimized if nutrient release by the organic materials and nutrient demand by the crop are in...

Author(s):   Wilkson Makumba and Festus K. Akinnifesi  

September 2008

Response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to foliar and soil applied boron in boron-deficient calcareous soils

  Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ha-1) on yield and some yield components of six common bean genotypes in...

Author(s): Mustafa Harmankaya, Mustafa Önder, Mehmet Hamurcu, Ercan Ceyhan and Sait Gezgin

September 2008

Effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on accumulation of catechins in tea (Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze)

  Effect of UV-B irradiation time on accumulation of foliar catechins in two tea cultivars was investigated. Low influence rate and short term irradiation of UV-B stimulated accumulation of major tea catechins, resulting in an increase in level of total catechins. Excessive irradiation of UV-B supressed the accumulation of tea catechins. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) increased more quickly than the other...

Author(s): Zheng XQ, Jin J, Chen H, Du Y.Y, Ye JH, Lu JL, Lin C, Dong JJ, Sun QL, Wu LY and Liang YR

September 2008

Hairy roots induction and artemisinin analysis in Artemisia dubia and Artemisia indica

  Transformation of two Artemisia species (Artemisia dubia and Artemisia indica) was carried out by using two Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and 8196 for hairy roots production. Induction of hairy roots was higher in both Artemisia species when infected with LBA9402 as compared to 8196. When biomass of roots along with their artemisinin content was evaluated, a...

Author(s): Abdul Mannan, Nazia Shaheen, Waheed Arshad, Rizwana Aleem Qureshi, Muhammad Zia and Bushra Mirza

September 2008

Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses Striga asiatica and has seed depletion role in maize (Zea mays L.) in Malawi

  The parasitic weed species, Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze, also known as witchweed, is one of the major constraints in maize production in Malawi. Most of the control measures do not protect a current crop from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station...

Author(s): V. H. Kabambe, F. Kanampiu and A. Ngwira

September 2008

The influence of NaCl salinity on some vegetative and chemical changes of strawberries (Fragaria x ananssa L.)

  In this study, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg l-1 salt applications in Kabarla and Gloria cultivars of strawberry in solid media culture were performed along with Hoagland nutrient solution. In the experiment, some vegetative growth and chemical changes were determined in the plants to which salt (NaCl) was applied compared with the control. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that Kabarla...

Author(s): Hudai Yilmaz and Arzu Kina

September 2008

Comparative in vitro inhibitory effects of cold extracts of some fungicidal plants on Fusarium oxysporium mycelium

  Cold extracts of five fungicidal plants (Aloe barbadensis, Azdrichta indica, Nicotiana tabacum, Tridax precubens and Carica papaya) were screened for in vitro inhibitory effects on Fusarium oxysporium, using 25, 50, 75 and 100% concentrations of each extract. The four different concentrations of N. tabacum completely inhibited radial growth of F....

Author(s): A. Taiga, M. N. Suleiman, W. Sule and D. B. Olufolaji

September 2008

Bio-decolourization of textile effluent containing Reactive Black-B by effluent-adapted and non-adapted bacteria

  Release of coloured textile effluents is undesirable in the aquatic environment as they reduce light penetration, thereby affecting aquatic life and limits utilization of the water media. Microbial bioremediation is an alternative treatment option available other than the commonly employed physico-chemical and biological methods to treat these toxic effluents. This study investigated the potentials of certain...

Author(s): Leena, R. and Selva Raj, D.

September 2008

Application of adsorbent as a novel technique during biodegradation of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (anthracene)

  The use of an alternative technique as a management strategy for the decontamination of hydrocarbon-based pollution in soil has been advanced in this work. The study investigated the degradation of anthracene, a three-ringed benzene derivative, in clay soil at ambient conditions under the influence of hydrophilic compound (carbon), thermally activated at temperatures of 300, 500, 700 and 900oC. The soil (500...

Author(s): C. N. Owabor and E. O. Aluyor

September 2008

Amylase activity of a starch degrading bacteria isolated from soil receiving kitchen wastes

  Starch degrading bacteria are most important for industries such as food, fermentation, textile and paper. Thus isolating and manipulating pure culture from various waste materials has manifold importance for various biotechnology industries. In the present investigation a bacterial strain was isolated from soil sample receiving kitchen waste and growth pattern as well as optimum growth condition was...

Author(s): Sasmita Mishra and Niranjan Behera

September 2008

Production of organic acids in an immobilized cell reactor using Propionibacterium acidi-propionici

  Immobilized cell reactor (ICR) was developed as a novel bioreactor to convert hydrolyzed sugars to organic acids. Sugar fermentation by Propionibacterium acid-propionici entraped by calcium alginate was carried out in continuous mode to produce propionic and acetic acids. In continuous fermentation, more than 90 percent of glucose conversion and 60 percent conversion of xylose were obtained at...

Author(s): M. Mohammadi, G.D. Najafpour, M. Asadi, M. Rahimnejad, S. Najafpour M. Pazouki

August 2008

Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production

  Soymilk and maize steep water were used as alternative raw materials to cow milk and commercial starter, respectively, for production of yoghurt. The cow milk used was both Fresh milk and dried powdered milk (DANO). The cost of production of the yoghurt samples as well as their chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties was compared with that of the commercially available yoghurt (FAN MILK). There was no...

Author(s):   Farinde, E.O., Obatolu, V.A., Fasoyiro, S.B., Adeniran, A.H. and Agboola, E.R.  

September 2008

Evaluation of Lactobacillus sanfransicencis (ATCC 14917) and Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 43332) effects on Iranian Barbari bread shelf life

  The effect of sourdoughs, produced with Lactobacillus sanfransicencis (ATCC 14917)and Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 43332) at different fermentation time, fermentation temperature and type of starter culture on the staling and microbiological shelf life of Iranian Barbari wheat bread was studied. For statistical analysis a completely randomized design...

Author(s): Alireza Sadeghi , Fakhri Shahidi , Ali Mortazavi and Mahdi Nassiri Mahallati

September 2008

Mouse model in food allergy: dynamic determination of shrimp allergenicity

  Food allergy is now an important health issue, and there is urgent need for a developmental approach to identify allergenic potential of food. We present an approach that shows some promise for assessment of shrimp allergenicity using BALB/c strain mice. The mice were immunized by intraperitoneal injection of shrimp allergen. Mast cell degranulation in combination with serologic methods was used to monitor...

Author(s): Guo Yongchao, Li Zhenxing and Lin Hong

September 2008

Effect of processing on the toxicity of mucuna jaspada flour

  Raw and heat processed Mucuna Jaspada were evaluated for proximate composition and bioactivity. The values obtained for proximate compositions are; protein: 27.85 ± 0.21%, ether: 5.02 ± 0.21%, ash content: 3.33 ± 0.21%, crude fibre: 6.76 ± 0.36% and carbohydrate: 46.91 ± 0.01%. Bioactivity studies using brine shrimp lethality tests showed that raw M....

Author(s): Udensi, E. A., Ijeh, I. I. and Kanu, C. P.

September 2008

West African soft cheese ‘wara’ processed with Calotropis procera and Carica papaya: A comparative assessment of nutritional values

  The nutritional contents of Carica papaya and Calotropis procera processed cheeses were evaluated. The following nutrients and elements were assayed; fat, protein, moisture, sugar, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu and their values were 22.3 and 31.45%, 31.60 and 33.84%, 62.5 and 61.70%, 2.05 and 8.10%, 1.19 and 4.14%, 2.80 and 2.35%, 4.8 and 4.7%, 4.6 and 7.3% for C. papaya and C....

Author(s): V. O. Adetunji   and O. T. Salawu

September 2008

Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected trace elements and vitamins concentrations in broiler

  The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 litter group (straw, sawdust, alum treated-straw and alum treated-sawdust). At the end of the experiment 10 birds (5 male + 5...

Author(s): Mehmet Fatih Çelen, Suleyman Kozat, Suat Ekin, İbrahim Hakki Yörük and Emine Alkiş

September 2008

Protein malnutrition and metronidazole induced intestinal bacterial translocation in rats

  This study was designed to assess the effects of protein malnutrition (PM) associated with antibiotic on growth weight, cecal bacterial overgrowth and enterobacteria translocation. Eighteen Gnotobiotic young Wistar rats (135 ± 2.35 g) were treated orally with antibiotic and submitted to dietary restriction based on maize diet in order to determine gram-negative enteric overgrowth in the ceca,...

Author(s): Benakriche Ben Mehel , Bekada Ahmed, Philippe Pochart, Saïdi Djamel and Kheroua Omar

September 2008

Effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration and flushing on reproductive performance in Nadooshan goats of Iran

  An experiment was conducted on Nadooshan goats of Iran, during the breeding season, to evaluate the effectiveness of flushing and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment on reproductive traits. Ninety-two intact does with an average live weight of 25.11 ± 3.933 kg were randomly divided into four equal experimental groups. Controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) were inserted for 18 days in...

Author(s):   Zare Shahneh, A. Sadeghipanah, H. Javaheri Barfourooshi and M. A. Emami-mibody  

September 2008

In vitro maturation of sheep oocytes in different concentrations of mare serum

  The aim of the study was to determine the optimum concentration of the mare serum (MS) for sheep in vitro oocyte maturation. Sheep ovaries were collected from a local abattoir and transported within 1 h to the laboratory in a warm saline solution (30 – 35oC), supplemented with 100 IU penicillin G and 100 μg streptomycin sulfate/ml. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC’s) were obtained by...

Author(s):   Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agronomy and Animal Science, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.  Faculty veterinary, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.  National institute of Genetic engineering and biotechnology. Iran

September 2008

Lack of modulatory effect of asparagus, tomato, and grape juice on cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in mice

  Studies on agents that modulate carcinogen-induced genotoxic effects in experimental animals are used to assess the antimutagenic or anticarcinogenic properties of putative chemopreventive compounds. We investigated the potency of asparagus-, tomato- and red grape-juice to modify the proportion of polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) and frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) induced by...

Author(s): Asita Okorie Asita, Mann E. Dingann and Sibusisiwe Magama

September 2008

Characterization of recombinant Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) insulin

  The production of hormones by biotechnological approaches has contributed significantly to treatment of many diseases. DNA recombinant technology has facilitated production of new forms of insulin from many species and mammalian insulin to be used as a therapy for diabetic patients. In this study, proinsulin from Arabian camel was produced and characterized for the first time by recombinant technology....

Author(s): Abdulaziz M. Al-Swailem, Mohamed B. Al-Fageeh, Essam J. Alyamani,Maher M. Shehata and Turki A. Al-Shammari