African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 18 April 2006; 5(8)

April 2006

Comparative study of the karyotypes of two Vigna sub species

The chromosomes of the two Vigna sub species were individually identified in order to gain insight into variations in the chromosome morphology that may contribute to interspecies cross incompatibility. Diploid chromosome number of 22 was established for V. unguiculata (TVu14476) while V. unguiculata ssp. dekindtiana var. pubescens was different with mitotic chromosome number of 23. The...

Author(s): ADETULA O.A.

April 2006

DGGE-RAPD analysis as a useful tool for cultivar identification

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis-random amplified polymorphic DNA(DGGE-RAPD) was used to overcome the main drawbacks of RAPD (i.e., the low levels of reproducibility and polymorphism). As a model, six barley cultivars of known origin were tested for RAPD markers using DGGE methodology with 29 arbitrary primers. Among a total of 418 bands observed, as high as 99 were polymorphic. Comparison between agarose-RAPD...

Author(s): A. Bahieldin, I.A. Ahmed, Gh.A. Gad El-Karim, H.F. Eissa, H.T. Mahfouz and O.M. Saleh

April 2006

Pathotypic diversity of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oudem) in Tunisia

Scald, caused by Rhynchosporium secalis (Oudem), is an important disease of barley in Tunisia particularly in northern, northwestern and central parts of the country where the climate is usually cold and wet during most of the barley growing season. Pathogenic variability of the barley scald pathogen in Tunisia was determined by testing the pathogenicity of 100 isolates from 5 different regions on 19 host...

Author(s): A. Bouajila, S. Haouas, M. Fakhfakh, S. Rezgui, M. El Ahmed and A. Yahyaoui

April 2006

Genetic relatedness among Trichoderma isolates inhibiting a pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani

The mechanism and mode of action of the Trichoderma against Rhizoctonia solani is through coiling around pathogen hyphae, penetration, and subsequent dissolution of the host cytoplasm. Characterization of 17 biocontrol strains identified as “Trichoderma” and isolated from R. solani was carried out using RAPDs. A certain degree of polymorphism was detected and the...

Author(s): Shalini , Narayan, K. P. , Lata and Kotasthane, A. S.

April 2006

Small and large scale genomic DNA isolation protocol for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), suitable for molecular marker and transgenic analyses

Chickpea is an important food legume crop with high nutritional value. Lack of appropriate DNA isolation protocol is a limiting factor for any molecular studies of this crop. The present report describes a rapid and efficient protocol for small and large scale preparation of superior quality and quantity of DNA from four cultivars (JG62, WR315, C235 and ICCV89314) compared to that of earlier reports. The yield of DNA...

Author(s): Dipankar Chakraborti, Anindya Sarkar, Sumanti Gupta and Sampa Das

April 2006

Genetic variation among active and inactive transmitters of Maize streak virus within a population of Cicadulina storeyi China (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

This study was undertaken to delineate active transmitters from inactive ones within a population of Cicadulina storeyi China, vector of Maize streak virus (MSV), genusMastrevirus using Mendelian crosses, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and isozyme esterase analysis.  This study indicated that the variation is genetic.  Four out of six Mendelian...

Author(s): Sunday Oluwafemiα

April 2006

Genetics evaluation of phosphorus utilization in tropical cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp)

Genetics evaluation of phosphorus utilization in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) was studied in a cross involving a tropically adapted genotype (IT90K-277-2) with a reported positive response to rock phosphate (RP) and a second genotype (IT89KD-288) that responds negatively to RP, using generation mean analysis of the parents, their F1, F2 and the two backcross generations. Highly significant...

Author(s): OJO D. K., BODUNDE J.G., OGUNBAYO S.A.,  AND AKINWALE A.F.

April 2006

Characterization and recovery rates of food-indicator microorganisms from home-made oral rehydration solutions in Nigeria

From home-made oral rehydration solutions (ORS), the identified bacterial strains from a total of 1880 bacterial isolates (1010 from granulated sugar and 870 from table salt) using the conventional taxonomic tools were Bacillus cereus var.mycoides (0.57%), Bacillus subtilis (2.28%), Citrobacter sp. (1.07%),Clostridium perfringes (14.75%), Enterobacter...

Author(s): Adenike A. O. Ogunshe, Nonye I. Iheanacho and Olukayode M. Oduyoye

April 2006

An innovative approach for hyperproduction of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes by consortium of Aspergillus niger MSK-7 and Trichoderma viride MSK-10

The present work describes the production of cellulolytic enzymes (CMC-ase, FP-ase, β-glucosidase) and hemicellulolytic enzyme (xylanase) along with total extracellular protein by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride using submerged fermentation. Among seven different kinds of experiments, secretion rate of protein and enzymes was investigated by mono- and co-cultures of A....

Author(s): Ikram-ul-Haq, Muhammad Mohsin Javed and Tehmina Saleem Khan

April 2006

Production of high temperature-resistant strains of Agaricus bitorquis

In this study, the culture mushroom Agaricus bitorquis (Quel.) Sacc. was examined for growth of mycelia and fructifications under high temperature. The spores taken from the mushrooms that were collected from nature were grouped as A, B, C, D and E.  These spores were inoculated into malt extract agar and incubated at 30ºC and primer mycelium was produced. The mycelium discus taken from primer...

Author(s): GULER, P., ERGENE, A. and TAN, S.

April 2006

Bio-preservative activities of Lactobacillus plantarum strains in fermenting Casssava ‘fufu’

The growth of three pathogens, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureusand Salmonella typhii were investigated in fermenting and non-fermenting cassava. The pH of the steeped cassava was also examined during fermentation.  Antimicrobial effects of the Lactobacillus plantarum on the pathogens were also determined by agar diffusion method. All the pathogens were inhibited...

Author(s): Obadina A.O., Oyewole O.B., Sanni L.O. and Tomlins K.I.

April 2006

Selection of pepper cultivars (Capsicum spp.) for the control of bruchids Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seeds

To minimize the impact on the environment caused by indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical pesticides, four pepper cultivars were evaluated on their insecticidal activities against Callosobruchus maculatus F. on cowpea seeds. Two studies were carried out. Treatments of the first study comprised dried and ground fruits of four pepper cultivars (‘Sombo’, ‘Nsukka Yellow’,...

Author(s): Echezona, B.C.

April 2006

Assessment of the physiological and biochemical characterization of a Lactic acid bacterium isolated from chicken faeces in sahelian region

The aim of this work was the examination of the microbiological and technological properties of a lactic acid bacterium (CWBI-B623) isolated from chicken faeces in sahelian region (Burkina Faso). The strain CWBI-B623 is a Gram positive rod, asporogenous, catalase-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non motile and mesophilic. The analysis showed that it produce L(+)-lactic acid via homofermentative pathway and it was able...

Author(s): Ali Bayane, Dominique Roblain, Robin Dubois Dauphin, Jacqueline Destain, Brehima Diawara, Philippe Thonart

April 2006

Direct toxic assessment of treated fertilizer effluents to Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias gariepinus and catfish hybrid (Heterobranchus bidorsalis ♂ x Clarias gariepinus ♀)

Acute static bioassay was employed to assess the toxicity of various ranges of effluent from the National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria (NAFCON) plant to three fish species: Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias gariepinus and hybrid (Heterobranchus bidorsalis â™€ x C. gariepinus â™‚) from the coastal estuaries of the Niger Delta area, Nigeria. The lethal concentration values at 24, 48 and 72 h...

Author(s): Bobmanuel N. O. K., Gabriel U. U. and Ekweozor I. K. E.

April 2006

Reaction of phthalimido alkyl acids with isopropylamine: synthesis, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties

Phthalimido alkyl acids 3-phthalimidopropionic acid (2a) and 4-phthalimidobutyric acid (2b) were treated with isopropylamine at room temperature using different solvents (dimethylformamide, dichloromethane and methanol) as the reaction medium and afforded 3-benzamido-propionic acid –2-(2-methylethyl)-carboxamide (3), 2-benzamido-2-methylethane-2-(2-methylethyl)-carboxamide (4), and 4-benzamido-butyric acid...

Author(s): Lucky O. OKUNROBO and Cyril O. USIFOH

April 2006

Bioassay of Geniculosporium species for Phytophthora megakarya biological control on cacao pod husk pieces

Fungal endophytes (Geniculosporium sp.) isolated from cacao leaves were screened for biological control of Phytophthora megakarya the cacao black pod disease pathogen, using Cacao Pod Husk Pieces (CPHP).  CPHP were pre-treated with spore suspensions of Geniculosporium sp. [BC13 (GJS 01-196), BC108 (GJS 01-192), BC118 (GJS 01-197), BC177 (GJS 01-198)], and were infected with P....

Author(s): P. R. TONDJE, K. P. HEBBAR, G. SAMUELS, J. H. BOWERS, S. WEISE, E. NYEMB, D. BEGOUDE, J. FOKO+ and D. FONTEM

April 2006

Response of planktonic bacteria of New Calabar River to zinc stress

Toxicity of Zn2+ on four planktonic bacteria isolated from New Calabar River water was assessed via dehydrogenase assay. Pure cultures of the bacterial strains were exposed to various Zn2+ concentrations (0.2 - 2.0 mM) in a nutrient broth amended with glucose and TTC. The responses of the bacterial strains to Zn2+ is concentration-dependent. At 0.2 mM, Zn2+ stimulated dehydrogenase activity...

Author(s): C. O. Nweke, J.C. Okolo, C. E. Nwanyanwu and C. S. Alisi

April 2006

Stimulation of reserpine biosynthesis in the callus of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. by precursor feeding

Reserpine is an important indole alkaloid that is used to treat hypertension and various psychiatric diseases by acting as a tranquilizing agent. In pharmaceutical industries, reserpine is in great demand. Chemical synthesis of reserpine is costlier than extracting it from natural resources. So enhancing this alkaloid in the already available system is a beneficial approach. Tryptophan is the starting material in the...

Author(s): S Anitha and BD Ranjitha Kumari

April 2006

The efficacy of urine data in comparative bioavailability of proguanil after oral and rectal administration in man

The bioavailability of proguanil formulated as suppository, was compared to the tablet formulation in a bid to evaluate the utility of the suppository dosage form as means of administering proguanil in children and high-risk groups, such as sickle cell patients, who may not tolerate oral route of administration. The study was a completely randomized cross over involving administration of 200 mg of proguanil suppository...

Author(s): Benjamin U. Ebeshi, Oluseye O. Bolaji, Obiageri O. Obodozie, Festus A. Ogunbona

April 2006

Effects of co-administration of chloroquine with paracetamol or ibuprofen on renal function of rabbits

The effects of co-administration of oral chloroquine with paracetamol or with ibuprofen on renal function were studied using 6 groups of New Zealand White rabbits.  Group 1, the control group received only feed and water.  The other groups (Groups 2-6) either received single therapies of paracetamol (10 mg/kg of body weight every 6 hours), ibuprofen (20 mg/kg of body weight/day) or chloroquine (5 mg/kg of body...

Author(s): Okey A. OJIAKO and Harrison U. NWANJO

April 2006

Effects of fertilizer phosphorus and poultry droppings treatments on growth and nutrient components of pepper (Capsicum annuum L)

The effect of five phosphrous levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg/ha) and five poultry dropping (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg/ha) levels on the growth, growth yield, yield components, nutrients concentration and food values of pepper (Capsicum annuum L) were observed from 2002 to 2003 raining seasons.  Phosphrous levels significantly increased pepper plant height, number of leaves per plant, number...

Author(s): Alabi, D. A.