African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 18 July 2007; 6(14)

July 2007

Roles of agricultural biotechnology in ensuring adequate food security in developing societies

  Agriculture is asked to satisfy two apparently contradictory needs; to become more productive and at the same time more sustainable, that is, to supply the food needed without depleting renewable resources. While agricultural biotechnology holds enormous promise for significantly increasing food production and relieving already strained land and water resources in most developing societies, it has become an...

Author(s): Nicholas Ozor and E. M. Igbokwe

July 2007

Future of health technology assessment studies in gene and cell therapies

  The application of new knowledge and technological change is a key driver of the achievements in policy decisions in health care environments at macro and micro level to achieve better health outcomes. The newly emerging stem cell therapies and genomics technologies stay at the interface of Research and Development (R&D) endeavours and clinical trials. However, as should be noted, health care decisions...

Author(s): Aysegul Akbay Yarpuzlu and Nazli Atak

July 2007

Expression of an expansin carbohydrate-binding module affects xylem and phloem formation

  Expansins are believed to be involved in disrupting the non-covalent adhesion of cellulose to matrix polysaccharides, thereby promoting wall creep. We have targeted a putative potato expansin (EXPA) carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) to the cell walls of tobacco plants. Histological examinations and electron microscopy indicated that 30% of the xylem cells of the transgenic stems with high expression of the...

Author(s): Olawole O. Obembe, , Evert Jacobsen, Richard Visser and Jean-Paul Vincken

July 2007

Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread wheat showing an association with karnal bunt resistance

  A set of 104 wheat recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between parents resistant (HD 29) and susceptible (WH 542) to karnal bunt (caused by Neovossia indica) were screened and used to identify SSR markers linked with resistance to karnal bunt as these would allow indirect marker assisted selection of karnal bunt resistant genotypes. The two parents were analysed with 46 SSR primer pairs. Of...

Author(s): Mukesh Kumar, O. P. Luthra, N. R. Yadav, Lakshmi Chaudhary, Navinder Saini, Rajiv Kumar, Indu Sharma and V. Chawla

July 2007

The use of simple sequence repeats markers to study genetic diversity in maize genotypes resistant to gray leaf spot disease

  Genetic diversity in maize (Zea mays L.) is an important tool for progress in selection for traits of interest. The objective of this study was to screen genotypes for presence of markers linked to plant defense against fungal diseases, and to study the genetic diversity in gray leaf spot resistant maize genotypes. Forty-one genotypes comprising of collections from Kenya, International Maize and Wheat...

Author(s): J. Ininda, J. Danson, M. Lagat, Ying Wei, S. Ajanga and O. M. Odongo

July 2007

Detection of homozygosity in near isogenic Lines of non-susceptible to Zhenjiang strain of densonucleosis virus in silkworm

  The near isogenic lines (NILs) of non-susceptible to DNV-Z were bred through backcrossing successively using L10 as donor parent and Js as recurrent parent. The homozygosity of the NILs was detected using the SSR markers from the SSR linkage map. The results showed that the ratio of the linkage groups from the recurrent parent in the NILs increased rapidly along with the increase of the...

Author(s): Li Muwang, Hou Chengxiang, Zhao Yunpo, Xu Anying, Guo Xijie,  and Huang Yongping

July 2007

Molecular characterization of some local and exotic Brassica juncea germplasm

  The production of Brassica germplasm with a wider genetic base is essential for using them properly in the genetic improvement of rapeseed/mustard. During the present study, different RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) primers were used to estimate the genetic distances among thirty different genotypes in all possible combinations. Level of genetic polymorphism at DNA level observed during...

Author(s): Waqar Ali, Iqbal Munir, Mian Afaq Ahmad, Wisal Muhammad, Nisar Ahmed, Durrishahwar, Shahid Ali and Zahoor A. Swati

July 2007

Enhancement of 20-hydroxyecdysone production in cell suspension cultures of Vitex glabrata R.Br. by precursors feeding

  The effect of ecdysteroid precursors feeding on cell growth and 20-hydroxyecdysone production of Vitex glabrata suspension cultures were studied. On the addition of cholesterol, there was no apparent increase of 20-hydroxyecdysone while growth was partially inhibited at higher levels. Feeding of 7-dehydrocholesterol and ergosterol did not affect the cell growth. Both precursors effectively increased...

Author(s): Duangjai Sinlaparaya, Preeyada Duanghaklang and Sanha Panichajakul

July 2007

High frequency shoot regeneration of Sterculia urens Roxb. an endangered tree species through cotyledonary node cultures

  A protocol is described for rapid and large scale propagation of an endangered, commercially and medicinally important tree species, Sterculia urens, by in vitroculture of cotyledonary nodes from 15 days old seedlings. Of the four different cytokinins (thidiazuron, isopentenyladenine, zeatin and adenine sulphate) evaluated as supplements to Murashige and Skoog medium (1962), thidiazuron at an...

Author(s): Town Mohammad Hussain, , Thummala Chandrasekhar and Ghanta Rama Gopal

July 2007

Effect of intercropping varieties of sweet potato and okra in an ultisol of southeastern Nigeria

  A field experiment was conducted at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike in 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons to access the productivity of three sweet potato cultivars intercropped with three okra cultivars. Intercropping generally increased okra plant height while intercropping with TIS 2532 OP.1.13 sweet potato significantly increased the number of pods per plant of...

Author(s): Njoku S. C., C. O. Muoneke, D. A. Okpara and F. M. O. Agbo

July 2007

An investigation on pin head formation time of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using some locally available peat materials and secondary casing materials

  This study was designed to determine pin head formation time of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts. Locally available peat materials such as peat of Bolu (PB), peat of Agacbasi (PA), peat of Caykara (PC), and their mixture (80:20; v:v) with piece of mosaic (PM), perlite (P), and sand (S) were used as secondary casing materials. Also, some activator materials such as...

Author(s): Ferah Yilmaz, Ergun Baysal, Hilmi Toker, Mehmet Colak, Osman Nuri Yigitbasi and Hakan Simsek

July 2007

Nutrient content of seeds of some wild plants

  The seeds of the fruits of some wild plants; Cassipourea congoensis(Tunti), Nuclea latifolia (Luzzi), Deterium microcarpum (Tallow), Balanites aegytiaca (Betu), andGemlin arborea (Melina) were analysed to establish their proximate compositions and the physico-chemical characteristics of the oils. The physico-chemical characteristics measured include saponification value (SV),...

Author(s): I. I. Nkafamiya, U. U. Modibbo, A. J. Manji and D. Haggai

July 2007

Effective preconditioning methods for in vitro propagation of Uapaca kirkiana Müell Arg. tree species

  The objective of the study was to determine efficient preconditioning methods for in vitro multiplication of Uapaca kirkiana plant materials from mature stock plants. The efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), calcium hypochlorite {Ca(OCl2)2} or mercuric chloride (HgCl2) as surface sterilant was evaluated in decontaminating explants excised from grafted and field-collected U....

Author(s): Simon A. Mng’omba, , Elsa S. du Toit, Festus K. Akinnifesi and Helena M. Venter

July 2007

Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extract of Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) stem bark

  Studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the stem bark of Kigelia africana, (LAM). Benth (Family: Bignoniaceae), a medicinal plant used in South, Central and West Africa for the treatment of various ailments and infection was carried out using agar diffusion technique. The results revealed that the crude ethanolic extract exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities...

Author(s): Omonkhelin J. Owolabi, Eric K. I. Omogbai and Osahon Obasuyi

July 2007

In vitro assays for bioactivity-guided isolation of antisalmonella and antioxidant compounds in Thonningia sanguinea flowers

  Bioguided fractionation of the aqueous extract of Thonningia sanguinea flowers, used traditionally in the treatment of microbial diseases, led to the isolation of two phenolic compounds. The structure of these compounds was elucidated by 1H, 13C 1D NMR and mass spectrometry experiments. The antibacterial activity against Salmonellastrains and antioxidant activity of the crude...

Author(s): J. D. N’Guessan, , A. P. Bidié, B. N. Lenta, B. Weniger, P. André, F. Guédé-Guina 

July 2007

Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of 50 medicinal plants from Nigeria

  Ethanolic extracts of 50 plant species were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The results indicated that of the 50 plant extracts, 28 plant extracts inhibited the growth of one or more test pathogens. Four plant extracts showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial...

Author(s): D. Kubmarawa, G. A. Ajoku, N. M. Enwerem and D. A. Okorie

July 2007

Low blood selenium: A probable factor in essential hypertension

  The possible association between selenium and essential hypertension was investigated in this study.  Blood selenium (BSe) and plasma glutathione peroxidase (plGSH-Px) activity were measured as biochemical markers of selenium status of 103 hypertensive patients (44 males and 59 females) and 88 apparently healthy subjects (40 males and 48 females).  The hypertensive patients were classified into...

Author(s): Babalola O. O., Anetor J. I and Adeniyi F. A. A.

July 2007

Levels of trace metals in soil and vegetation along major and minor roads in metropolitan city of Kaduna, Nigeria

  Sample of soil and plant (Sida acuta burm F.) were collected from 30 sites of 24 roads. The samples were analyzed for Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Mn using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The soil physico-chemical parameter, pH and particle size distribution was also determined. Levels of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Mn in soil were 15.28 – 76.92, 1.96 – 9.80, 41.66 – 237.96, 1.60 – 4.88...

Author(s): Okunola, O. J., Uzairu, A. and Ndukwe, G.

July 2007

Xylanase production by Aspergillus niger ANL 301 using agro - wastes

  Xylanase production by wild-type Aspergillus niger ANL301, newly isolated from wood-waste, was monitored at 24 h intervals for a period 168 h in media containing different carbon sources. The carbon sources were oat-spelt xylan (Fluka) and three agro-wastes (sawdust, sugarcane pulp and wheat bran). Highest xylanase activity of 6.47 units/mL was obtained at 96 h in media containing wheat bran as sole...

Author(s): Okafor, U. A., Okochi, V. I., Onyegeme-okerenta, B. M. and Nwodo-Chinedu, S.

July 2007

Characterization of palm wine yeasts using osmotic, ethanol tolerance and the isozyme polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase

  Physiologic characteristics of ten palm-wine yeast isolates obtained from nine localities in four provinces in southern Cameroon were assessed using sensitivity to chloramphenicol, tolerance to acetic acid, ethanol tolerance, osmotolerance as well as protein and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) polymorphism. None of these isolates was sensitive to 30 µg/ml chloramphenicol and all were non-tolerant to 1%...

Author(s): Bechem E. E. T., Omoloko C. , Nwaga D. and Titanji V. P. K.

July 2007

Technologically important properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw milk of three breeds of Algerian dromedary (Camelus dromedarius)

  A total of 9 samples of individual dromedary raw milks from N’ajjer (3), Targui (3) and Reguibi (3) breeds were collected from 3 camels nomad herd in south Algeria and were analysed for bacterial load. A total of 23 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated, out of which 12 strains were cocci and 11 strains were facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Lactic acid bacteria were identified on...

Author(s): Omar Hassaïne, Halima Zadi-Karam and Nour-Eddine Karam

July 2007

Stream water quality in the western regions of Iran

  Stream water quality of a part of the four western mountainous regions of Iran:Lorastan, Kordestan, Hamadan and Kearmanshah, with a total area of 101.102´103km2 was investigated. The chemistry of major elements such as Ca, K, Na, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and alkalinity from hydrological basins of the regions was examined based upon samples from the relatively important basins. The difference in these...

Author(s): Safar Marofi and Zohreh Maryanaji

July 2007

Oxidative stress and non-enzymic antioxidant status in hypertensive patients in Nigeria

Oxidative stress and non-enzymic antioxidant status in plasma of hypertensive patients in Nigeria were investigated. One hundred and fifty hypertensive patients (82 males and 68 females) age range 55 – 75 years visiting Federal Medical Centre, Owerri were selected for the study. Controls were 120 apparently healthy subjects (66 males and 54 females) age range 55 -75 years. Patients with complication such as renal...

Author(s): Nwanjo, H. U., Oze, G., Okafor, M. C., Nwosu, D. and Nwankpa P.