African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12179

Table of Content: 18 March 2008; 7(6)

March 2008

Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural production in the tropics: The research link

The potential benefits of biotechnology are extraordinary and traverse sectors like agriculture, environment, health, industry, bio-informatics, and human resource development. In agriculture, biotechnology research has helped to improve the understanding of diseases, to improve the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, to improve resistance to herbicides/insects/pests/diseases/drought, to improve crop varieties and...

Author(s): Aggrey Bernard Nyende

March 2008

Analytical profile of the fluoroquinolone antibacterials. I. Ofloxacin

In recent years, there has been rapid progress in quinolone research and development resulting in the production of many clinically important fluoroquinolones which have been subjected to diverse analytical or assay methods. This is the first review article in this series of the fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents with focus on the analytical profile of ofloxacin. Ofloxacin and indeed all the other fluoroquinolones are...

Author(s): Henry A. Okeri and Ikhuoria M. Arhewoh

March 2008

Evidence for an in vitro anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity in Tulbaghia violacea

The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antithrombotic and anticoagulant properties in Tulbaghia violacea .  The bulb and leaf extracts of T. violacea and garlic showed that T. violacea exhibited antithrombotic activities which were higher than those found in garlic. The IC200 values for the leaf and the bulb extract were 0.4 and 0.3 mg/ml, respectively for...

Author(s): Lelethu Bungu, Maryna van de Venter and Carminita Frost

March 2008

Viscoelastic finite-element analysis of human skull - dura mater system as intracranial pressure changing

In the work, the dynamic characteristics of the human skull-dura mater system were studied. For the purpose of our analysis, we adopted a model consisted of a hollow sphere. By using the ‘Patran and Ansys’ finite element processor, a simplified three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of a human skull was constructed. The model was used to calculate the deformation of human skull with the intracranial...

Author(s): Xianfang Yue, Li Wang, Shufeng Sun, Lige Tong

March 2008

Anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrhoeal properties of Faidherbia albida in rats

Faidherbia albida Del. (local name: Gawo) is employed traditionally to treat disorders such as fever, diarrhoea, urticaria, vomiting, cough, rheumatism and heamorrhage. The present study was carried out to scientifically appraise some of the folkloric uses of the plant. The crude aqueous extract was studied for acute toxicity, its anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrhoeal effects using yeast-induced...

Author(s): A. Y. Tijani, M. O. Uguru and O. A. Salawu

March 2008

Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of Alstonia congensis Engler (Apocynaceae) bark and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) fruits mixtures used in the treatment of diabetes

The present study was carried out to evaluate acute and subacute toxicity of a hydroalcoholic extract of a mixture (1:1) of A. congensis bark and X. aethiopicafruits used locally in the treatment of diabetes. Acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated in Swiss albino mice. The animals were fed with the hydroalcoholic extract between the doses of 1.0 to 20.0 g/kg body weight and were observed...

Author(s): Ogbonnia, S., Adekunle, A. A., Bosa, M. K. and Enwuru, V. N.

March 2008

Evaluation of the cytotoxicity interactions between epirubicin and daunorubicin in HeLa cell cultures

Epirubicin and Daunorubicin, antibiotics which are derivative of anthracyclines, are used on cancer chemotherapy. In this study, Epirubicin and Daunorubicin effects on cell kinetics parameters were examined both single and in combination on HeLa cell culture that was taken from human servical carcinoma. The experiments tested by using IC90 doses of Epirubicin and Daunorubicin (0.5 μg/ml and 0.1 μg/ml,...

Author(s): Gül Özcan Arıcan, Uğur Serbes and Ercan Arıcan

March 2008

An allometric scaling law for understanding mammalian sleep

An allometric scaling law is established for explaining sleep time per day which scales with brain mass. The theoretical prediction agrees well with Savage and West’s experimental data.   Key words: Metabolic rate, white matter, gray matter, allometric scaling, sleep time.

Author(s): Ji-Huan He

March 2008

Association of LEI0258 microsatellite alleles with antibody response against newcastle disease virus vaccine and body weight in two Tanzania chicken ecotypes

A study was carried out to evaluate the prospects of using marker assisted selection (MAS) in improving primary antibody response against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine and body weight in two Tanzania chicken ecotypes, namely Kuchi and Tanzania Medium (Medium). The study involved evaluation of the association between LEI0258 microsatellite alleles (a microsatellite located within the chicken Major...

Author(s): J. Lwelamira, G. C. Kifaro, P. S. Gwakisa and P. L. M. Msoffe

March 2008

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene from Ginkgo biloba

A full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene, which catalyzes the first step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, were isolated fromGinkgo biloba for the first time (designated as GbPAL, GenBank Accession No. EU071050). The cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of GbPAL were the same, in other words, this gene is intronless. The coding region of the gene was 2172 bp long, and its...

Author(s): Feng Xu, Rong Cai, Shuiyuan Cheng, Hewei Du, Yan Wang and Shuhan Cheng

March 2008

Assessment of rice genotypes for salt tolerance using microsatellite markers associated with the saltol QTL

A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for salt tolerance named Saltol was mapped on chromosome 1 using F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Pokkali/IR29 cross, which is responsible for low Na+, high K+ uptake and maintaining Na+/K+homeostasis in the rice shoots. To test the usefulness of microsatellite (SSR) markers associated with Saltol QTL, a collection of 36 diverse rice genotypes were...

Author(s): G. Mohammadi-Nejad, A. Arzani, A. M. Rezai, R.K. Singh and G. B. Gregorio

March 2008

Effect of ambient gases and soil moisture regimes on carbohydrate translocation in kidneybean plants grown in pots in Riyadh, KSA

This study designated to examine the effect of elevated gases in four localities of Riyadh City on carbohydrate for parts of kidneybean plants (Phaseolous vulgarisL.) grown in pots under two soil moisture regimes (well-watered vs. restricted water). Carbohydrate analysis results showed increases in kidneybean samples under well-watered conditions compared to restricted soil moisture. Most kidneybean samples at Embasses...

Author(s): Fahad Al-Qurainy

March 2008

Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for proteomics studies

This study describes the establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for use in proteomics studies. Friable sorghum callus was initiated from young shoots under completely dark conditions on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) and 2.5 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Additionally, sorghum cell suspension cultures have been initiated from the friable callus...

Author(s): Rudo Ngara, Jasper Rees and Bongani K. Ndimba

March 2008

Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the common sunflower (Sanay cultivar) using spectral discrimination techniques

Salinity is one of the main limiting factors for agricultural production. This is especially true in arid and semi-arid regions of the world like Turkey. The objective of this study was to determine if the effect of salt concentration on the physiological and physiological features of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) could be measured using remote sensing techniques. Sunflower seedlings were grown under...

Author(s): H. Turhan, L. Genc, S. E. Smith, Y. B. Bostanci and O. S. Turkmen

March 2008

Tissue culture in Pinus caribaea Mor. var. Hondurensis barr. and golf. II: Effects of two auxins and two cytokinins on callus growth habits and subsequent organogenesis

The growth habits of calluses of Pinus caribaea Mor. were investigated to determine their correlation with organogenesis for­­­­ micropropagation purposes. Two forms of callus growth habits were observed; friable and compact calluses. Their development occurred over a range of auxin-cytokinin combinations. In naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) x 6-furfuryl amino purine (kinetin) cultures,...

Author(s): Akaneme, Florence Ifeoma and Eneobong, Effiom Eneobong

March 2008

Response of Gliricidia sepium tree to phosphorus application and inoculations with Glomus aggregatum and rhizobial strains in a sub-Saharian sandy soil

A pot experiment was carried out in a green house at Bel Air station to determine effect of phosphorus on the growth of Gliricidia sepium in presence of rhizobial strains and an arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus. A factorial 3 factors block was designed with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus aggregatum, phophorus fertilization as triple super phosphate and rhizobial inoculation strains ISRA 604 and ISRA 605...

Author(s): Adama Diouf,Tahir Abdoulaye DIOP, Ibrahima Ndoye and Mamadou Gueye,

March 2008

Preliminary characterization of Rhizobium strains isolated from chickpea nodules

A total of 28 Rhizobium strains from chickpea nodules were characterized on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Most strains produced abundant extracellular polysaccharides, were tolerant to 0.5 M NaCI (53%) and a temperature of 40oC (75%). The majority of the strains showed an intrinsic resistance to the antibiotics (µg ml-1) streptomycin (100), kanamycin (50),...

Author(s): Çiğdem Küçük and Merih Kıvanç

March 2008

Effects of rhizobium inoculation, sulfur and phosphorus applications on yield, yield components and nutrient uptakes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

This study was carried out to determine the effects of sulfur and phosphorus application and rhizobium inoculation for a chickpea variety, Aziziye-94, under Eastern Turkey conditions in 2004 and 2005. The trial was laid out in split-split block design with three replications. Chickpea variety was applied on three different sulfur levels (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1), phosphorus levels (0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1) and inoculation...

Author(s): Necat Togay, Yesim Togay, Kerim Mesut Cimrin and Metin Turan

March 2008

Integration of C4-specific ppdk gene of Echinochloa to C3 upland rice and its photosynthesis characteristics analysis

Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) plays a key role in C4 photosynthetic pathway. The enzymatic reaction is one of the rate-limiting steps of the C4photosynthetic pathway. In this paper, the gene encoding Echinochloa pyruvate orthosphate dikinase (GenBank accession number: AB289641) was introduced into H65, a upland rice variety, using an Agrobacterium-mediated system. Southern hybridization,...

Author(s): Jinming Wang and Runzhi Li

March 2008

Phoma negriana, a new invasive pathogen for Moghan's vineyards in Iran

During disease diagnosing studies in Moghan area, northern west of Iran, symptoms of black rot and necrosis were observed for the first time on Vitis venifera. Incidence was first noticed on leaves and stems. Symptoms occurred as small brown spots on leaves and stems, and developed as blackish-brown necrosis/canker so that the black pycnidia extended at the central parts of them. On the fruit, symptoms appeared as...

Author(s): Mahdi Davari and Behzad Hajieghrari

March 2008

Garcinia kola extract reduced lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages using U937 cells as a model

The effect of Garcinia kola heckel seed extract on the promonocytic cell line U937 activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. 200 μl of U937 cells maintained in culture at 5 x 105 cells per ml was delivered into wells of a culture plate according to groups. Cells were pre-treated with 20 μl of 100 ng/ml phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) for 24, 48, or 72 h in order to transform them to...

Author(s): Tebekeme Okoko and Ibiba F. Oruambo

March 2008

Variation of nitric oxide levels in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes

Nitric oxide (NO) has been recognized during the past two decades as one of the most versatile players in the immune system. Even though the molecular mechanisms responsible by the naturally acquired immunity against malaria are still to be clarified, the production of NO seems to play an important role as a marker for the severity of the disease. In this study we assess the level of nitric oxide in the serum of...

Author(s): De Sousa, Karina, Silva, Marcelo S. and Tavira, Luís T.

March 2008

Mechanisms for biosorption of chromium (III), copper (II) and mercury (II) using water extracts of Moringa oleifera seed powder

In continuation of our work on heavy metal remediation using Moringa seed powder, this study examines the mechanisms of metal sorption on water extracts of Moringa oleifera (MO) seed powder using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Chromium(III) is hydrolysed to form a mixture of [Cr3(OH)4(H2O)10]5+ and [Cr(OHx)2<(OH)2>]nn∙(2x-3)+ complexes, x = 1 or 2. The chromium(III)...

Author(s): S. M. I. Sajidu, I. Persson, W. R. L. Masamba, and E. M. T. Henry

March 2008

Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of some mangroves in Sundarbans

The antioxidant activity of 23 extracts from different plant parts (leaves, stem bark and root) of 6 mangroves and 4 mangrove associates was examined. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was calculated as gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and anti-radical activity was estimated as IC50 values using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Remarkable high phenolic content (GAE > 25 mg/g), strong reducing...

Author(s): Deepanjan Banerjee, Shrabana Chakrabarti, Alok K. Hazra, Shivaji Banerjee, Jharna Ray and Biswapati Mukherjee

March 2008

Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb) in the soft tissues of the gastropods Tympanotonus fuscatus fuscatus and Tympanotonus fuscatus radula collected in the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire): Evidence of the risks linked to lead and cadmium.

A comparative survey of the levels of contamination of the two gastropods, of the Potomidae family, has been done in the lagoon Ebrié close to the city of Abidjan. It revealed that Tympanotonus fuscatus radula (TFR), adapt better to the conditions of the lagoon environment than Tympanotonus fuscatus fuscatus (TFF). Besides,T. fuscatus radula shows a higher bioaccumulation capacity of the...

Author(s): Mamadou Koné, Diomandé Dramane, Traoré Karim Sory, Dembélé Ardjouma and Houenou Pascal Valentin.

March 2008

Study of chemical and physical behavior cotton fabrics treated by corona discharge after several laundering

Cotton fabric because of finishing process has shrinkage behavior after laundering and for improving this problem, chemical agents utilize for anti-shrinkage. This temporary finishing can reduce shrinkage but has many environmental problems. Corona discharge treatment has been used for cotton fabric, other fibers and polymers. This treatment can reduce costs and environmental impacts. In this study, cotton fabric was...

Author(s): P. Valipour, S. Nourbakhsh, M. Maboudi, A.G. Ebadi and A.Taravati

March 2008

Biodegradation of detergents by aquatic bacterial flora from Otamiri River, Nigeria

The utilization of Omo®, Jet® and Persil® detergents by aquatic bacteria isolates from Otamiri River at Nekede in Owerri North, Imo State, Nigeria was investigated. Identification tests for bacteria isolates from Otamiri River revealed them to belong to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Psendomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium,...

Author(s): T E. Ogbulie, J. N Ogbulie and I Umezuruike

March 2008

Biodecolorization of acid violet 19 by Alternaria solani

Microorganisms are the nature’s tools for cleaning the environment. Bioremediation using bacteria, fungi and algae is becoming an attractive option for the treatment of industrial effluents containing a wide spectrum of pollutants including dyes and heavy metal ions. In the current research work, the potential of a deuteromycete fungus, Alternaria solani for the removal of a dye, Acid Violet 19 from...

Author(s): Hazrat Ali and Shah Khalid Muhammad

March 2008

Kinetics of biological treatment of phenolic wastewater in a three phase draft tube fluidized bed bioreactor containing biofilm

Phenolic wastewater was treated in a three-phase draft tube fluidized bed reactor containing biofilm. Phenol removal rate with biofilm was evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. The results indicate that biodegradation of phenolic wastewater by biofilm process could be treated as a zero order reaction. The volumetric biological removal rate with biofilm is proportional to the specific surface area of the...

Author(s): V. Vijayagopal and P. L. Sabarathinam

March 2008

Adulticidal effect of fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae on malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent for the adult mosquito of Anopheles stephensi (Malarial vector). In the present experiment was carried out in the laboratory of 30-50 male and female adult mosquitoes were exposed to M. anisopliae (exposed to 1 x 106 conidia/ml of oil or water suspension). In our results, there was 96% and 94%...

Author(s): S. Kamala Kannan, K. Murugan, A. Naresh Kumar, N. Ramasubramanian and P. Mathiyazhagan