African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12485

Table of Content: 19 November 2008; 7(22)

November 2008

Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells

  One of the constraints in unraveling the mysteries blurring the advancement of research in the quest to totally put HIV problems under control is getting the appropriate animal model that would truly simulate human cases. This problem is more apparent in studies involving the central nervous system. Consequently, a viable animal model to generate information for the production of drugs and vaccines for the...

Author(s): Adebayo, I. A., Awoniyi, T. A. M.  and Olaleye, O. D.

November 2008

Studies on cytotoxicity and antitumor screening of red and white forms of Abrus precatorius L.

  The cytotoxicity study with cancer cell line A-549 indicated that the methanol insoluble fraction of crude red forms of Abrus precatorius is toxic (CTC50 175,100mg/ml) in microculture tetrazolium assay and sulphorhodamine B assays, whereas crude and fractions of the red and white forms exhibited toxicity at still higher concentrations. However, an antitumor screening by the short-term toxicity...

Author(s): R. Sivakumar and C. Alagesaboopathi

November 2008

In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Lycopodium cernuum (Linn) Pic. Serm

  Helicobacter pylori, a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium is a major etiological agent in duodenal, peptic and gastric ulcers. In this study, gastric biopsy samples were obtained from patients presenting with gastroduodenal complications. H. pylori was isolated from the specimens following standard microbiology procedures, and isolates subjected to pure fractions of Lycopodium cernuum extracts...

Author(s): Ndip R.N., Ajonglefac A.N., Mbullah S.M., Tanih N.F., Akoachere J-F T.K., Ndip L.M., Luma H.N., Wirmum C., Ngwa F. and Efange S.M.N.

November 2008

Adsorption separation of 3b-D-monoglucuronyl-18b-glycyrrhetinic acid from directional biotransformation products of glycyrrhizin

  3β-D-monoglucuronyl-18b-glycyrrhetinic acid (GAMG) can be obtained on a large scale by directional hydrolysis of glycyrrhizin (GL) with b-glucuronidases, which has more physiologically potential application than GL in a wide range of biological activities. In this study, the preparative separation of GAMG in hydrolysates of GL by macroporous resins (NKA-9, D4020, HZ-803, 1300, HP-20 and X-5) were studied...

Author(s): Dingqiang Lu, , Shumin Zhang, Jun Wang, Hui Li and Yan Dai

November 2008

A study on Cordyceps militaris polysaccharide purification, composition and activity analysis

  In this study, raw Cordyceps militaris polysaccharide (CPS) was extracted with ultrasonic- assisted extraction method. Proteins in the raw CPS were removed with the enzymatic and Sevag methods. After dialysis, an extraction rate of 0.82% was achieved. Two components, namely CPS-1 and CPS-2, were obtained from DEAE-52 ionic exchange chromatography eluted with NaCl solution at a gradient from 0...

Author(s): Hui Yan, Dongjie Zhu, Dabao Xu, Jie Wu and Xuyun Bian

November 2008

A non-toxic herbal remedy which enhance lymphocyte activity and cytokine secretion: Ganoderma lucidum

  Ganoderma lucidum is grown in the deep foliage of South-western China, where it is free from heavy metals and pollutions from populated cities. G. lucidum contains biologically active components, polysaccharides, which have been shown to enhance the immune system. In China, G. lucidum is commonly used to treat cancer, allergies, inflammation, hypertension and platelet-aggregation....

Author(s): Hao Liang, Wings TY Loo, Barry H.S. Yeung, Mary NB Cheung, Min Wang, JP Chen

November 2008

The disposition and pharmacokinetics of Dioscorea nipponica Makino extract in rats

  This study was aimed to investigate the disposition and pharmacokinetics of the total saponins of dioscorea (TSD) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orallyadministrated with 3H labeled TSD at a single dose ratio of 80 mg TSD per 1 kg rat.Blood samples and feces were collected at different time points to measure the level of TSD activity. At...

Author(s): Hong Ren, Jian Ping Chen, Bin Yan Tan, Dong Mei Wang, Shu Hai Lin, Y. P. Zhang, D. P. Yang, T. Y. Wings Loo, H. S. Barry Yeung, Miaozhen Jinand Xiaofang Li

November 2008

Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in Bloemfontein: A cross-sectional study

  There is growing evidence that urbanization of black South Africans is associated with changes in the structure of dietary intake. The urban diet is more diverse than the rural diet, and includes more animal foods, refined carbohydrates and fats, posing a potential risk to the health of urbanized populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the macronutrient intake of...

Author(s): Z. Hattingh, C. M. Walsh, C. J. Bester and O. O. Oguntibeju

November 2008

A study of atopic diseases in Basrah

  A study of atopic diseases; allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis were carried out in this investigation. From 174 patients, 39.08% has atopic dermatitis, while 33.90 and 27.01% have bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis, respectively. Males has a greater percentage of bronchial asthma than females (p<0.01), while females has a greater percentage of allergic rhinitis (p<0.01) and...

Author(s): Ihsan Edan Alsaimary

November 2008

Study of genetic variation in population of Bipolaris victoriae, the causal agent of rice brown spot disease, in Guilan Province of Iran

  Isolates of Bipolaris victoriae were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques to determine the amount of intraspecific genetic variability. Seven primers were applied and DNA bands of 200-5000 bp were produced. Cluster analysis using UPGMA method gave five groups. Levels of polymorphism were observed between DNA of different isolates. The pattern of RAPD bands did not show any...

Author(s): Mohammad Reza Safari Motlagh and Behzad Kaviani

November 2008

Characterization and glutenin diversity in tetraploid wheat varieties in Sulaimanyah by wheat storage proteins

  Important methods applied for the breeding of bread-quality wheat (Triticum durumL.) consist of small-scale bread-quality tests for the determination of the grain protein content, SDS-sedimentation volume, thousand weight kernel and kernel diameter. Wheat grains of six varieties were analyzed. The thousand weight kernel, protein content, kernel diameter, SDS-sedimentation volume and SDS index showed a...

Author(s): Nawroz Abdul-razzak Tahir

November 2008

Function and safety assessment of Lactococus lactis subsp. lactis LB12 as potential probiotic strain

  The effect of yogurt fermented by Lactococus lactis subsp. lactis LB12 isolated from traditional Chinese pickled cabbage on serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were investigated in mice. In the same, the characterizations of the strain, such as acid-tolerance, bile-tolerance, antimicrobial activity, antibiotic sensitivity and safety were also examined. The...

Author(s): Daodong Pan, and Dezhen Zhang

November 2008

Antiradical potential and antifungal activities of essential oils of the leaves of Citrus latifolia against Phaeoramularia angolensis

  Investigations were conducted to determine the chemical composition, antiradical and antifungal activities of the essential oil extracted from the fresh leaves of Citrus latifolia var. Tahiti from Cameroon against Phaeoramularia angolensis. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC and GC/MS. The disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the zone of fungal growth...

Author(s): Jazet Dongmo, P. M., Tatsadjieu, N. L., Tchinda Sonwa, E., Kuate, J., Amvam Zollo, P. H and Menut, C.

November 2008

Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different salinity levels

  The aim of this study was to select the most suitable cultivar for salty land in this geographical area. Two sweet sorghum cultivars (Keller and Sofra) and one grain sorghum cultivar (Kimia) were grown in greenhouse benches under four salinity levels of 2, 4, 8 and 12 dSm-1 to evaluate the effects of salinity on stem yield and  soluble carbohydrate (sucrose, glucose and fructose). The results showed...

Author(s): A. Almodares, M. R. Hadi and H. Ahmadpour

November 2008

Evaluation of switchgrass and sainfoin intercropping under 2:1 row-replacement in semiarid region, northwest China

  Field experiments were carried out under natural conditions to compare the aboveground biomass, root growth and distribution, and topsoil nutrition contents ofswitchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia) grown in sole cropping and 2:1 row-replacement intercropping in semiarid loess region on Loess Plateau of northwest China. The sole and intercropping was compared...

Author(s): Bingcheng Xu, Lun Shan, Suiqi Zhang, Xiping Deng and Fengmin Li,

November 2008

Breeding system and pollination biology of the semi-domesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources

  In this paper, we provide data on the breeding system of Tamarindus indica, examining fruit production as well as pollen tube growth under different controlled pollination experiments (open, cross and self pollination). We discuss implications of the results for management for fruit production in Tamarind, conservation of genetic resources and the potential for selective breeding. Observation of the...

Author(s): Boukary Ousmane Diallo, Doyle Mckey, Marie-Hélène Chevallier, Hélène I. Joly and Martine Hossaert-Mckey

September 2013

Comparison of the effects of different crop rotation systems on winter wheat and sunflower under rain-fed conditions

The study was made to detect the most suitable crop rotation system(s) under rain-fed conditions of Southern Marmara Region, Turkey. In this study (1995-2001), two different crop rotation systems were carried out: winter wheat and sunflower as main crops experiments. Results were evaluated in terms of crop yielding ability, soil fertility and economic aspects. The sunflower-rapeseed-wheat, rapeseed-fodder pea +...

Author(s): Dogan, R., Goksoy. T. A., Yagdi, K. and Turan, M. Z.

November 2008

Dietary inclusion of dried Artemisia annua leaves for management of coccidiosis and growth enhancement in chickens

  Coccidiosis constitutes a major problem in poultry rearing. Recourse to the use of prophylactic chemotherapy, for example, is only a short-term solution. Ostensibly, the drugs used are effective but they are also expensive. In the present study, the influence of adding dried Artemisia annua L. leaves as a botanical coccidistat in coccidia-infested broilers was investigated. Concurrently,...

Author(s): Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe, , Umoren E. Umoren, Patrick U. Owai and Fraideh Brisibe

November 2008

Establishment of a plant regeneration system from callus of Dendrobium cv. Serdang Beauty

  An in vitro propagation protocol was established for the Dendrobium Serdang Beauty orchid. The propagation protocol utilized calli tissues that were successfully initiated from protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) explants, while the leaf and root tip explants died. The percentage of protocorm-like bodies explants responding to calli formation was 100% in all tested levels of IAA, IBA and NAA...

Author(s): Khosravi, A. R., Kadir, M. A., Kazemin, S. B., Zaman F.Q and De Silva, A. E.

November 2008

Intercropping of corn with cowpea and bean: Biomass yield and silage quality

  An experiment was carried out at the Bornova experimental fields of Field Crops Department of Agriculture Faculty., Ege Univ., Turkey during 2004-2005 growing season in order to determine biomass yield and silage quality of corn (Zea mays indendata) mixed with legumes such as various cowpea (Vigna ungiuculata) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars monocropped or intercropped in same or alternate-rows....

Author(s): Hakan Geren, Riza Avcioglu, Hikmet Soya,  Behcet Kir

November 2008

Comparison of some local melon genotypes selected from Lake Van Basin with some commercial melon cultivars for some yield and quality related traits observed in field and high tunnel conditions

  This study aimed to compare some local melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes selected from the Lake Van Basin (65 ER 02, 65 ER 04, and 13 TAT 05) with some commercial melon cultivars (Ananas, Makdimon F1, and Rambo F1) for some yield and quality related traits observed in field and high tunnel conditions for two years. At the end of the study, it was determined that Makdimon F1 produced the highest...

Author(s): Ceknas Erdinc, Onder Turkmen and Suat Sensoy

November 2008

Alleviation of UV-B stress in Arabidopsis using tea catechins

  Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) has been confirmed to be harmful to living organisms and it is of concern that the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the earth’s surface is increasing because of the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Effect of different levels of tea catechins on morphological damage and expression of chalcone synthase gene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to UV-B were...

Author(s): X. Z. Lee, Y. R. Liang, H. Chen, J. L. Lu, H. L. Liang, F. P. Huang and E. G. Mamati, 

November 2008

Effectiveness and efficiency of chemical mutagens in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

A study was undertaken in a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety CO 6 to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of chemical mutagens; ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). EMS treatments were found highly effective than the other chemicals.  Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency decreased with increase in all mutagenic treatments.   Key...

Author(s): D. Dhanavel, P. Pavadai, L. Mullainathan, D. Mohana, G. Raju, M. Girijaand C. Thilagavathi

November 2008

Comamonas sp. EB172 isolated from digester treating palm oil mill effluent as potential polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producer

  Eleven potential polyhydroxybutyrates (PHB) producers were successfully screened from treated palm oil wastewater using acetate as sole carbon and energy sources and on nitrogen limiting media with Nile Blue A dye to screen for PHB accumulation. Orange fluorescence color, produced upon binding of the dye to polymer granules in the cell, was detected when directly exposed under ultra violet light and it...

Author(s): Mohd Rafein Zakaria, Suraini Abd-Aziz, Hidayah Ariffin, Nor `Aini Abdul Rahman, Phang Lai Yee and Mohd Ali Hassan

November 2008

Fire behavior in Mediterranean shrub species (Maquis)

  The prediction of fire behavior in fire prone ecosystems is of vital importance in all phases of fire management including fire prevention, presuppression, suppression and fire use. This paper deals with an experimental burning exercise conducted in the Mediterranean region in Turkey. A series of 18 experimental fires were carried out in tall maquis fuels in Asar District, Antalya, southwestern Turkey. The...

Author(s): Bülent SaÄŸlam, ErtuÄŸrul Bilgili, Ömer Küçük and Bahar Dinç Durmaz

November 2008

Effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) extracts on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and physicochemical characteristics of soil

  Pot-grown seedlings of wheat cultivars Margalla 99 and Chakwall 97 were given water mixed with extracts of sunflower leaves, stems, or roots 20 days after the seedlings had emerged. Data on growth and yield parameters, weed density, and hormone production were recorded. Physicochemical properties of soil were analysed before sowing sunflower and after harvesting wheat. Commonly observed effects of...

Author(s): Javed Kamal and Asghari Bano

November 2008

Detection of zearalenone, zearalenol and deoxynivalenol from medicinally important dried rhizomes and root tubers

  An investigation was carried to determine the natural contamination of three important fusarial mycotoxins; zearalenone (ZEN), zearalenol (ZOL) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in medicinally important dried rhizomes of Acorus calamus, Bergenia ciliata, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale and root tubers of Pueraria tuberosa. A total of 130 market samples were investigated for these mycotoxins....

Author(s): Anju Koul and Geeta Sumbali

November 2008

Compositions and comparisons of antimicrobial potencies of some essential oils and antibiotics against selected bacteria

  The antimicrobial activities of 10 essential oils extracted from various plant species were investigated and compared with the activities of 10 commercial antibiotics against 10 strains of bacteria using agar diffusion method.  Although, all the essential oils were active at concentration ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/ml, their activities were more lower than the commercial antibiotics. However, being...

Author(s): S.O. Oyedemi, G. Pirochenva, L.V Mabinya G. Bradley and A.J. Afolayan

November 2008

Optimization for cellulase production by Aspergillus niger using saw dust as substrate

  Cellulases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes and are capable of degrading lignocellulosic materials. Cellulases have wide range of applications. This work focuses on factors relevant for improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis of saw dust by using Aspergillus niger. Different cultural conditions were examined to assess their effect in optimizing enzyme production. Alkaline pretreated (2 N NaOH) saw dust at...

Author(s): P. B. Acharya, D. K. Acharya and H. A. Modi

November 2008

Characterization and evaluation of Paulownia elongota as a raw material for paper production

  Paulownia elongota, one of the most fast growing species of the world, was evaluated as raw material for pulp and paper production. The chemical, morphological and anatomical aspects of paulownia wood were determined. The lignin, holocellulose and α-cellulose contents in P. elongota wood were comparable to those of some common non-wood and hardwood raw materials. Different chemical pulping...

Author(s): Saim Ates, Yonghao Ni , Mehmet Akgul, Ayhan Tozluoglu

November 2008

Effects of gibberellin mutations on shoot bud regeneration of Arabidopsis

  Tissue culture provides a useful system to investigate how plant hormones areinvolved in this process. Auxin and cytokinin are widely used in plant regeneration. Gibberellin is also an important plant hormone in regulating plant growth and development. It is interesting to know the effects of gibberellin and its signalling pathway on plant...

Author(s): Xiuhai Zhang, Zhongyi Wu, Conglin Huang

November 2008

Does seasonal variation influence the phytochemical and antibacterial properties of Carpobrotus edulis?

  Carpobrotus edulis L. (family Aizoaceae) has been used by locals over the years to treat microbial infections. Extracts of varying polarities were prepared from the leaf debris and filtrate of a spring and an autumn harvest of C. edulis. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyze the phytocompounds of the extracts as well as to assay the plant for antioxidant compounds. The spring harvest...

Author(s): Pirwana K. Chokoe, Peter Masoko, Matlou P. Mokgotho, Rachmond L. Howard and Leseilane J. Mampuru

November 2008

Farmers’ perceptions of practices and constraints in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chips production in rural Cameroon

  A survey aimed at collecting information on practices and constraints in the production of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chips, a transformed cassava product obtained through fermentation and drying of its fresh roots was carried out in 45 villages located in three geographical regions (Yaoundé, Mbalmayo, and Ebolowa) of the humid forest zone of Cameroon. A structured questionnaire to...

Author(s): G. Essono, M. Ayodele, J. Foko+, A. Akoa, J. Gockowski, Z. Ambang, J.M. Bell, and Ndongo Bekolo

November 2008

The effect of fermented milk with Bifidobacterium infantis on intestinal disorders in the case of antibiotherapy with amoxicillin and contamination with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC)

  This study deals with the ingestion of fermented milk with Bifidobacterium infantis,and its effect on intestinal disorders and on the intestinal lining during antibiotherapy with amoxicillin and contamination with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli EPEC O111.B4, the latter being responsible for 45% of infant diarrhoea in Algeria. Our results showed that the growth of B....

Author(s): Hamma Samia, Nicoletti Cendrine and Sadoun Djamila

November 2008

The feeding ecology of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus) from a high brackish tropical lagoon in South-west, Nigeria

  The diet of the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus L.) was investigated in the Lagos Lagoon (high brackish) habitat in Nigeria from February 2004 – January 2006. The highest number of empty stomachs was recorded in October 2004, while the lowest was in December 2005. The highest number of empty stomachs was recorded in the small sized group (Standard length, 4.5 – 12.4 cm), while the least occurred...

Author(s): Soyinka, Olufemi Olukolajo

November 2008

Induction of ovulation in endemic Chalcarburnus chalcoides, living in the Caspian Sea, using LRH-Aa combined with metoclopramide

  The study was performed in order to try to provoke the gonadotropin wave and ovulation in Chalcarburnus chacoides using GnRH analogue, pituitary extract and dopamine antagonist. Different doses and injection protocols were applied using a combination of LRH-Aa, metoclopramide and carp pituitary extract. C. chalcoidesshow wide individual variation and much slower response to different...

Author(s): Mehdi Yousefian, Halat Goli Gezel and Hedayati Fard Masoud

November 2008

Factors influencing in vitro shoot regeneration of Macadamia Integrifolia

  A study was carried out to investigate the effect of culture medium factors that influence the shoot regenerative potential of Macadamia nodal segments in vitro. Explants were obtained from shoots of current growth flush of Macadamia integrifolia and inoculated onto different test media. Woody plant medium (WPM) gave results comparable to MS medium whose macronutrients had been reduced to...

Author(s): Lucy Gitonga, Esther Kahangi, Simon Gichuki, Kamau Ngamau, Anne Muigai, Eston Njeru, Nancy Njogu, and Simon Wepukhulu

November 2008

Potential allelopathic effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on microorganisms

  Potential allelopathic effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivar Hysun 38 on Rhizobium, Azospirillum, and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were studied by applying oxidase, QTS tests and Gram staining. Microorganisms for the control group were isolated from soil sampled before sowing sunflower. A commonly observed effect of allelochemicals was a decrease, compared to control, in...

Author(s): Javed Kamal and Asghari Bano

November 2008

Growth control of kalanchoe cultivars Rako and Gold Strike by application of paclobutrazol and uniconazole as soaking treatment of cuttings

  This study was conducted to test the potential of paclobutrazol and uniconazole used at the propagation stage as a plant growth retardant (PGR) of kalanchoe cultivars Rako and Gold Strike. Three node terminal cuttings were soaked in 500 mL of 0.05, 0.25, or 0.50 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol or uniconazole solution for 2 h. After soaking treatment, the cuttings were rooted in a fog tunnel with mean daily...

Author(s): Seung Jae Hwang, Mi Young Lee, Iyyakkannu Sivanesan and Byoung Ryong Jeong,