African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 2 April 2007; 6(7)

April 2007

Geographical evolution of the CTX-M β-lactamase – an update

The CTX-M- type extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) that preferentially hydrolyze cefotaxime are emerging globally and comprise of more than 50 enzymes.The emergence of novel CTX-M β-lactamases in several countries is noted as opposed to the transfer of established CTX-M genes from one country to another, suggestive of a de novo dissemination of CTX-M genes.   Key...

Author(s): Govinden, U., Mocktar, C., Moodley, P., Sturm, A. W. and Essack S.Y.

April 2007

Estimation of water pollution by genetic biomarkers in tilapia and catfish species shows species-site interaction

This study was aimed at the estimation of water pollution with heavy metals using four biomarkers as well as to study the species-site interaction. Two species of tilapia as well as two catfish species caught from four sites that represent differential environmental stresses were used for this purpose. Water samples and gills were analyzed for heavy metal contents. Three enzyme biomarkers (acid phosphatase (AP),...

Author(s): Ahmed M. El-Shehawi, Fagr K. Ali and Mohamed A. Seehy

April 2007

The effect of interaction between Lipoprotein Lipase and ApoVLDL-II genes on fat and serum biochemical levels

Body weight, abdominal fat weight and serum biochemical levels were determined from lean and fat chicken breeds at 12 weeks of age. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in apoVLDL-II and lipoprotein lipase genes was screened by PCR-SSCP and detected by direct sequencing. Lipoprotein lipase gene frequency was found to be significantly different (P < 0.01) in lean chicken whereas it was non-significantly different in...

Author(s): Hassan Hussein Musa, Guo Hong Chen and Bi Chun Li

April 2007

Genetic diversity of Tamarindus indica populations: Any clues on the origin from its current distribution?

Tamarindus indica is a domesticated species of high economic value for the Sahel region. Despite this importance, very few data is available on its diversity as well as its structure leading to controversial discussions on its origin. Thus it is questionable whether the knowledge of its genetic diversity and organisation may help in identifying the area of its origin. We have studied 10 populations using...

Author(s): Boukary Ousmane Diallo, Hélène, I. Joly, Doyle McKey, MartineHossaert-Mckey and Marie Hélène Chevallier

April 2007

Effects of genotype, explant type and nutrient medium components on canola (Brassica napus L.) shoot in vitro organogenesis

The objective of the study was to develop an efficient method for shoot regeneration of canola (Brassica napus L.) and to compare the regeneration capacity of different explants on MS medium with several combinations of plant growth regulators. The experiments showed that the morphogenetical potential of canola depends on genotype, primary explant, hormonal structure and concentration of nutrient medium. Cotyledons...

Author(s): Ghasemi Bezdi Kamal , , Karlov Gennady Illich and Ahmadikhah Asadollah

April 2007

The phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening of extracts of Olax subscorpioidea

The antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and ethanoic extracts of the stem of Olax subscorpioidea were evaluated. The ethanoic extract showed considerable activity on both the fungi and bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging from 7.2 mm to 21.5 mm, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 5 to 45 mg/ml, while the aqueous extract was only active against three of the test organisms used....

Author(s): Ayandele, A. A. and Adebiyi, A. O.

April 2007

Influence of malaria on the serum levels of vitamin A, zinc and calcium of children in Douala-Cameroon

Malaria is an endemic parasitic disease that prevails particularly in warm tropical regions of the world. Micronutrient malnutrition such as vitamin A and iron deficiencies which is a public health problem in Cameroon is usually highly prevalent in malaria endemic areas. Characterizing the relationship between micronutrient status (vitamin A, zinc and calcium) and malaria infection among children in Douala town...

Author(s): Gouado Inocent, Lehman Leopold Gustave, Some Issa T., Mbouyap Yolonde, Pankoui Mfonkeu Joel Bertand , Ejoh Aba Richard and Tchouanguep Mbiapo Felicité

April 2007

Investigation of plasmid DNA and antibiotic resistance in some pathogenic organisms

Twenty-eight strains of Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Escherichia coli isolated from cultures of stool, urine and wound were tested for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents.  All the strains were resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol and gentamycin. All the Pseudomonas and Escherichia...

Author(s): UCHECHI N. Ekwenye and ERINMA Kazi

April 2007

Biochemical alteration in Nigerian children with acute falciparum malaria

This study was undertaken to establish data on the effect of acute falciparum malaria on plasma levels some biochemical parameters in the pathology of malaria in Nigeria children. We estimated the levels of Na+, K+, HCO3, Ca++ , inorganic PO4=,  bilirubin,  total protein,  albumin, urea, creatinine and glucose in the plasma of 250 parasitaemic and 150 non-parasitaemic Nigerian...

Author(s): Adeosun, O. G., Oduola, T., Akanji, B. O., Sunday, A.  M., Udoh, S. J.and  Bello, I.S.

April 2007

Acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus in rats

A study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Ano-geissus leiocarpus using conventional methods. The result of the oral acute toxicity study revealed no death with doses up to 3200 mg/kg body weight.  However, the rats showed signs of depression and inappetence. Using the intraperitoneal route, the rats showed dose-dependent signs of toxicity ranging...

Author(s): Agaie, B. M., Onyeyili, P. A., Muhammad, B. Y. and Ladan, M. J.

April 2007

Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Landolphia owariensis leaf

Ethanolic extract of the leaves of Landolphia owariensis were subjected to phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp. and Proteus sp. using dehydrogenase assay method. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The bacterial isolates were exposed to different extract concentrations (20...

Author(s): L. A. Nwaogu, C. S. Alisi, C. O. Ibegbulem and C. U. Igwe

April 2007

Physico-chemical characterization and cytotoxicity studies of seed extracts of Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss.

The seeds of Khaya senegalensis were extracted using petroleum ether and methanol with the aim of determining the physico-chemical properties of the seed oil and the cytotoxicity of the two extracts. The refractive index of the oil was found to be 1.458, while the relative density was 0.953. The iodine and saponification values were 88.40 and 195.58, respectively. The peroxide and acid values were 4.6 and...

Author(s): R. G. Ayo, O. T. Audu and   J. O. Amupitan

April 2007

Aerobic dehalogenation activities of two petroleum degrading bacteria

Two petroleum degrading bacteria were screened for 2,4-dichlorophenyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrading abilities and assessed for their dechlorination potentials. The bacterial isolates were previously identified to be Corynebacterium sp. (SOGU16) andAchromobacter sp. (SOGU11). Axenic cultures of the isolates metabolise 2,4-D as the sole source of carbon and energy. The optimum pH for dioxygenase specific...

Author(s): Igbinosa O. Etinosa, Ajisebutu  O. Stella and Okoh I. Anthony

April 2007

The influence of aerobic sludge retention time on anaerobic co-digestion of dyeing and printing wastewater and sewage sludge

Two pilot-scale activated sludge systems comprising anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and aerobic plug flow reactor (PFR) were operated aiming to minimize excess sludge output of the activated sludge process through coupled alkaline hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Variations in the effluent total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) and NH4+-N concentration proved that the process not only could minimize excess sludge...

Author(s): Jin Wang, Zhenjia Zhang, Zhifeng Zhang, Ping Zheng and Chunjie Li

April 2007

Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of honey from the sudano-guinean zone of West Cameroon

The physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of honey from the sudano-guinean zone of West Cameroon were determined. The indices obtained were within their respective ranges recorded for honey in temperate countries, except for calcium content whose value was on the upper side of its reference range. A bacterial type and eight fungi species contamination were found to have contaminated the honey from the...

Author(s): Tchoumboue Joseph, Awah-Ndukum Julius, Fonteh Florence A, Dongock N Delphine, Pinta Jonnas and Mvondo Ze Antoine

April 2007

Comparative study on the microbiology and shelf life stability of palm wine from Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri obtained from Okigwe, Nigeria

The microbiological and biochemical changes and shelf life stability of Elaeis guineensisand Raphia hookeri brands of palm wine were determined. R. hookeri brands were found to habour more heterotrophic and coliform population than the E. guineensis, whereas the later haboured more yeast species. Identification tests revealed the isolation of Bacillus, Lactobacillus,...

Author(s): Ogbulie, T. E., Ogbulie J. N. and Njoku, H. O.

April 2007

Optimum conditions for cotton nitrate reductase extraction and activity measurement

Conditions of nitrate reductase extraction and activity measurement should be adapted to plant species, and to the organs of the same plant, because of extreme weaknesses and instabilities of the enzyme. Different extraction and reaction media have been compared in order to define the best conditions for cotton callus nitrate reductase activity measurement. The use of potassium phosphate buffer, at pH 7.5  allowed...

Author(s): Justin Yatty KOUADIO, Hilaire Tanoh KOUAKOU, Mongomaké KONE, Michel  ZOUZOU and Pierre Abo ANNO

April 2007

Studies on dyed coconut (Cocos nucifera) pollens for removal of Cu (II) and Zn (II) from aqeoues solution

The ability of undyed and dyed coconut pollens to remove Cu(II) and Zn(II) from single ion solutions was been studied. The experiments were carried out using coconut pollens (1.0 g) undyed coconut pollens, UDCP, and dyed coconut pollens, DCPI, DCPII and DCPIII of different particle sizes: 0.40, 0.63 and 0.80 mm, respectively. The amount of Cu(II) adsorbed on UDCP, DCPI, DCPII and DCPIII were 69.20, 97.90, 94.70 and...

Author(s): Agiri, G.O, Akaranta, O and Ajayi, I. O

April 2007

Equilibrium and kinetics studies of metal ion adsorption on dyed coconut pollens

Batch equilibration studies were conducted to determine the nature of adsorption of Zn (II) and Cu (II) onto dyed coconut pollens. The nature of adsorption of metal ions was explained using the Langmuir equation. The calculated values of equilibrium parameter indicated favourable adsorption by the adsorbents. Also the calculated values of fractional attainment of equilibrium α, the intraparticle diffusion rate...

Author(s): Agiri, G. O., Akaranta, O. and Ajayi, I. O.

April 2007

Evaluation of the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from faeces of breast-fed infants in Egypt

The probiotic-related characteristics of 55 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the faeces of 3 - 6 months old breast-fed infants were determined. The API 50 CH and SDS-PAGE techniques were employed to ascertain the identity of the isolated strains. The predominant species among the isolated strains were Lactobacillus (Lb.) acidophilus, Lb. plantarum, Enterococcus (E.) faecium, and E....

Author(s): Rowaida Khalil Hoda Mahrous, Khalil El-Halafawy, Kamal Kamaly, Josef Frank and Morsi El Soda

April 2007

Characterization of avocado pear (Persea americana) and African pear (Dacryodes edulis) extracts

The oil from edible avocado pear (Persea americana) and African pear (Dacryodes edulis) were extracted with chloroform. The oil were characterized for melting point, refractive index, relative viscosity, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value, acid value and percentage unsaponifable matter. The percent oil content in the fruit pulp was determined. The oil content of avocado pear was 9.1% while that of...

Author(s): Ikhuoria, E. U.  and Maliki, .M.