African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12479

Table of Content: 3 July 2006; 5(13)

July 2006

Rapid, cost-effective liquid chromatograghic method for the determination of metronidazole in biological fluids

A rapid and cost effective method for the analysis of metronidazole in biological samples was developed. The extraction method is a simple single-step liquid-liquid process that has eliminated the need for costly extraction and evaporation equipment. The mobile phase consists largely of water, making the method cheap to run with less than 6 min total analytical time per sample. The calibration curve was linear from 0 to...

Author(s): Mustapha K.B, Odunola M.T., Garba M. and Obodozie O.

July 2006

Genetic variability and heritability studies of some reproductive traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp.)

The success of most crop improvement programs largely depends upon the genetic variability and the heritability of desirable traits. The magnitude and type of genetic variability help the breeder to determine the selection criteria and breeding schemes to be used for improvement purposes. A screen house experiment was carried out at Samaru, Nigeria in 1999 and 2000 dry seasons to estimate the genotypic variability of...

Author(s): L.O. Omoigui, M.F. Ishiyaku, A.Y. Kamara, S.O. Alabi, S.G, Mohammed

July 2006

Cytogenetic studies on some Nigerian species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae)

Cytogenetic studies to determine the chromosome number, structure and behaviour of some species of Solanum in Nigeria were carried out. Attempt was also made to induce polyploidy in the species. Comparative analysis of the cytological behaviour of the diploid and polyploid cytotypes was made. The studies show that the somatic chromosome number in the genus Solanum is 2n = 24. Colchiploidisation produced tetraploids with...

Author(s): Gordian C. Obute, Benjamin C. Ndukwu and Bosa E. Okoli

July 2006

LTR-retrotransposons-based molecular markers in cultivated Egyptian cottons G. barbadense L.

Long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that are ubiquitous in plants and constitute a major portion of their nuclear genomes. LTR-retrotransposons possess unique properties that make them appropriate for investigating relationships between closely related species and populations. The aim of the current study was to employ Ty1-copia group retrotransposons as molecular markers in...

Author(s): Elsayed E. HafezF, Abdel Ghany A. Abdel GhanyF and Essam A. Zaki   FThese authors contributed equally to this work.

July 2006

Genetic diversity of Uapaca kirkiana Muel. Ã…rg. populations as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs)

Uapaca kirkiana is a priority fruit tree species for domestication in miombo woodlands of Southern Africa.  Natural populations of U. kirkiana are declining through out the woodlands due to deforestation, forest fragmentation and wildfires.  Knowledge of population structure and genetic diversity is prerequisite for development of conservation strategies. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) were...

Author(s): Weston F. Mwase, , Å. Bjørnstad, B. Stedje, J.M. Bokosi and M.B. Kwapata

July 2006

Genetic diversity in green gram [Vigna radiata (L.)] landraces analyzed by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

Green gram [Vigna radiata (L.)] landraces were collected from various localities of Southern Tamil Nadu, India, to determine the extent of genetic diversity at DNA level by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using 20 decamer primers. All the primers produced polymorphic amplification products with some extent of variation. A total of 200 bands were generated with an average of 10 per primer and exhibited...

Author(s): Karuppanapandian T, Karuppudurai T, Pritam Bala Sinha, Hamarul Haniya A, Manoharan K

July 2006

Optimization of DNA extraction for ISSR studies in Tectona grandis L.f. - an important forest tree species.

Four extraction methods and sample types were evaluated for yield, quality and suitability of genomic DNA for ISSR marker amplification in teak (Tectona grandis). Both CTAB and SDS based extraction procedures extracted better quantity and purity index of genomic DNA. Leaves of trees, bud grafts and seedlings yielded better DNA than seeds. Using identical PCR conditions, DNA extraction methods and sample types influenced...

Author(s): C. Narayanan, Swapnil Dubey, Syed Arif Wali, Nidhi Shukla, Randhir Kumar, A.K. Mandal and S.A. Ansari

July 2006

Ploidy and genome composition of Musa germplasm at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

Musa spp (bananas and plantains) constitute a hybrid-polyploid complex and are classified according to different genome compositions such as AA, BB, AB, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAAA, ABBB, AAAB and AABB.  Knowledge of ploidy and exact genome compositions of the parental material is essential for Musa breeding.  This study determined the ploidy levels and genome composition of the Musa germplasm collection, constituting...

Author(s): M. Pillay, E. Ogundiwiny, A. Tenkouanod, and   J. Dolezel

June 2006

Biotransformation of algal waste by biological fermentation

The garbage of red algae, Gelidium sesquipedale, from a factory after extraction of agar-agar, is indiscriminately discharged into the public environment. Microbiological analyses confirmed that this garbage contains different groups of bacteria whose number is variable: the total aerobic mesophilic flora, 4 x 106 cfu/g; total coliforms, 6 x 105 cfu/g; fecal streptococci, 2 x 102 cfu/g;...

Author(s): Ennouali, M., Ouhssine, M., Ouhssine, K. and Elyachioui, M

July 2006

In vitro propagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bert in Bangladesh

An experiment was conducted on in vitro culture of Stevia rebaudiana Bert, an important non-caloric sweetening herb to explore its potential for micro-propagation. Leaf, nodal and inter-nodal segments of the selected herb as explant were cultured on MS medium containing 2,4-D at 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg/L for callus induction. Inter-nodal segments initiated callus earlier than node and leaf. The highest...

Author(s): Mohammed Salim Uddin, Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury, M. Muoztaba Mahfuzul Haque Khan, Mohammad Belal Uddin, Romel Ahmed, Md. Azizul Baten

July 2006

Levels of toxic elements in soils of abandoned waste dump site

The soils of an abandoned waste dumps sites which has been presently used for crop cultivation was investigated. Three points on the location of the waste dump site were selected and three pits of 100 cm depth were dug at selected points. Soils samples were collected at an interval of 10 cm from the three pits. The physico-chemical properties and toxic heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) levels were determined. The...

Author(s): Okoronkwo, N.E., Odemelam, S.A. and Ano, O.A.

July 2006

In vitro regeneration of adult trees of Bambusa vulgaris

We developed procedures for the regeneration of Bambusa vulgaris using nodal segments from adult plants. Optimal shoot growth was after 16 days cultivation onmodified Murashige and Skoog (MMS) medium supplemented with 2 mg/l of BAP. Elongated shoots of B. vulgaris rooted (45.85%) when cultured in MMS + 20 mg/l IBA. The rooted and acclimated shoots were successfully transferred into the field...

Author(s): Aliou NDIAYE, Mamadou Saliou DIALLO, Dame NIANG and Yaye Kène GASSAMA-DIA

July 2006

Simulated flooding and drought effects on germination, growth, and yield parameters of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

The effects of drought on germination of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) also known as benniseed were simulated in the laboratory using varying concentrations of sodium chloride, glucose and polyethylene glycol at 0 – 0.50 MPa water potential. Higher osmotic conditions (0.25 – 0.50 MPa) significantly reduced the percentage germination, radical and shoot development. The ability of the three chemicals...

Author(s): J. K. MENSAH, B. O. OBADONI, P .G. ERUOTOR and F. ONOME-IRIEGUNA

July 2006

Macro-propagation technique for different physiological ages of Gongronema latifolia Benth cuttings

Non-wood forest products have been shown to be sustaining the rural poor in Nigeria and other developing countries. They are in most cases threatened to extinction because most species are not domesticated and thus harvested from forests. Macro-propagation of Gongronema latifolia Benth highly valued for its nutritional and medicinal qualities but has not been substantially domesticated was studied using three...

Author(s): AGBO, C.U. and I.U. OBI

July 2006

Response of microminerals in serum of sheep infected with Trypanosoma congolense

Twenty (20) Yankassa sheep ages between 12-18 months were infected with fresh stock of Trypanosoma congolense isolated from a cow. Animals were grouped into three; groups A and B were infected while group C served as uninfected controls. Samples between the infected and the uninfected controls showed a high significant levels of calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) (P < 0.001) and lower of phosphorus (P) (P <...

Author(s): Neils, J. S., Joshua, R. A., Oladusu, L. A.

July 2006

Responses of plasma lipids to edible mushroom diets in albino rats

The potentials of two tropical edible mushrooms: Pleurtotus tuber-regium andTermitomycetes clypeatus  in altering the plasma levels of some lipids in male albino rats fed high fat diets were investigated. Rats were randomly assigned to diet containing 20% fat, P. tuber-regium diet and T. clypeatus diet. Total body weight gain of rats fed mushroom diets were not significantly...

Author(s): Oyetayo, F.L

July 2006

Microwave treatment modify antigenicity properties of bovine milk proteins

This work is aimed to assess the effect of a microwave heating on cow’s milk protein antigenicity. The heating protocol is established on the power/time relationship. A first share of milk samples were treated at 300 and 400 watts for 10, 15 and 20 min. The second share of milk and whey samples were treated at 500, 600 and 700 watts for 10 min. The antigenicity of proteins is evaluated by a study of milk sample...

Author(s): KADDOURI Hanane, El MECHERFI Kamel Eddine, KHEROUA Omar, SAIDI Djamel

July 2006

Determination of ferulic acid and related compounds by thin layer chromatography

The analysis of certain phenolic compounds from plants, and their chemical transformation with microorganisms or isolated enzymes, has application in the food and pharmaceutical industry. The rapid quantitative estimation of ferulic acid by thin layer chromatography is described by measurement of the area of the obtained spots. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis of a number of related phenolics, some of which are...

Author(s): Leonard Vuyani Mabinya, Tungamirai Mafunga and John Morgan Brand

July 2006

Antioxidant properties of Myristica fragrans (Houtt) and its effect on selected organs of albino rats

Aqueous extract of the seed of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) was evaluated for its phytochemical constituents, antinutrients and antioxidant properties. Toxicological investigation was also carried out using six groups of Wistar albino rats. The treatment groups were administered varying doses (100-500 mg/kg body weight) of the extract for a period of 28 days. The animals were sacrificed and their livers,...

Author(s): M.T. Olaleye,  Afolabi C. Akinmoladun and A.A.Akindahunsi

July 2006

Histophysiological and basal metabolic responses of albino rat, Rattus norvegicus (L) exposed to aqueous pepper extracts

The effect of oral ingestion of aqueous extracts of two species of pepper, Capsicum annum var fastigatum (Linn) and Capsicum frutescens var minima (Linn) on the basal metabolic rate and histophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract and liver ofRattus norvegicus (L) was investigated.  Body weight data was recorded weekly during the period of investigation.  The various species of pepper...

Author(s): Chukwu, L.O.

July 2006

A study of the in vitro interaction of cotrimoxazole and ampicillin using the checkerboard method

In this study, the in vitro interaction of two standard antibiotics – cotrimoxazole and ampicillin trihydrate were studied by the checkerboard technique, using clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The organisms were exposed to the individual antibiotics as well as different combination ratios of the same, and the zones of inhibition as well...

Author(s): IBEZIM, E. C., ESIMONE, C. O., OKORIE, O., ONYISHI, I. V., NNAMANI, P. O., BROWN, S. A. and OBODO, C. E.

July 2006

The scientific merit of Carpobrotus mellei L. based on antimicrobial activity and chemical profiling

Species of the genus Carpobrotus are similar in appearance and have been used for medicinal purposes over many generations. Carpobrotus mellei is endemic to the south-Western Cape of South Africa, and also used for various ailments. To date no scientific validation and information has been reported on C. mellei. This study investigated the antimicrobial potential of C....

Author(s): E. P. Springfield and F. Weitz

July 2006

Effects of jackbean seed meal on the intestinal mucosa of juvenile Heterobranchus longifilis

Juvenile Heterobranchus longifilis were fed diets that were isonitrogenous (CP 30%) and isocaloric (ME 2900 Kcal/kg) comprising the control diet without jackbean seed meal (JBSM) and those containing raw and 60 min boiled JBSM at different inclusion levels. At the conclusion of the 56 days feeding study, histological examination of the intestinal mucosa of H. longifilis indicated that those fed the...

Author(s): D. I. Osuigwe, A. I. Obiekezie and G.C. Onuoha

July 2006

Environmental Biotechnology Screening Cu and Cd tolerance in Salix species from North Morocco

Hydroponic culture has been used to compare copper and cadmium tolerance in fiveSalix species from North Morocco using different approaches. Measurements of growth parameters have been combined with those of some photosynthetic parameters. Tolerance index based either on root or shoot growth allowed to defineSalix pedicelata and Salix purpurea as Cu and Cd-tolerant species, respectively. From the...

Author(s): Abdelmalek Hakmaoui, Matilde Barón, Mohammed Ater

July 2006

The use of confocal microscopy in quantifying changes in membrane potential

Monitoring the plasma membrane potential and its changes can be a time consuming and challenging task especially when conventional electrophysiological techniques are used. The use of potentiometric fluorophores, namely tetramethylrhodamine methylester (TMRM), and digital imaging devices (laser scanning confocal microscopy) provides reliable and time efficient method. Two scorpion pore-forming peptides, namely PP and...

Author(s): Dale Elgar, Fons Verdonck, Anne Grobler, Carla Fourie, Johan Du Plessis