African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12182

Table of Content: 4 July 2008; 7(13)

July 2008

Immunological and molecular diagnostic methods for detection of viruses infecting cowpea (Vigna unquiculata)

Cowpea viruses are difficult to identify using morphological criteria which can be time consuming, challenging, and require extensive knowledge in taxonomy. In order to improve the quality and quantity of the germplasms and to significantly reduce the infection and transmission of virus to different cultivars of cowpea, proper diagnosis and control is essential. The immuno-diagnostic and molecular-diagnostic methods...

Author(s): Akinjogunla, O. J. Taiwo, M. A. and Kareem, K. T.

July 2008

Gastric malignancies and associated pre-malignant lesions in a teaching hospital in South West Nigeria

The histologic types of gastric malignancies and other associated histopathological indices in gastric biopsies received at the Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria were determined. The study was retrospective and it involved collecting all slides on all available cases of gastric biopsies over a period of ten years...

Author(s): A. O. Komolafe, O. S. Ojo and B. J. Olasode

July 2008

Linear regression models for quantitative assessment of left ventricular function and structures using M-mode echocardiography

Changes in left ventricular structures and function have been reported in cardiomyopathies. No prediction models have been established in this environment. This study established regression models for prediction of left ventricular structures in normal subjects. A sample of normal subjects was drawn from a large urban population. Echocardiographic end diastolic diameters, end systolic diameters, posterior wall...

Author(s): Okwor, C. A., Ugwu, A. C. and Ez​e, J.

July 2008

Antifungal effect of Calotropis procera stem bark on Epidermophyton flocosum and Trichophyton gypseum

The antifugal activities of aqueous extract of Calotropics procera was determined against Epidermophyton flocosum and Tricophyton gypseum using agar diffusion techniques. The crude extract of C. procera showed activity on E. flocosum and T. gypseum at 4.0 mg/ml. The result of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.5 and 0.9 mg/ml and that of minimum...

Author(s): F. A. Kuta

July 2008

Analysis of genetic diversity in Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden) seed sources using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) molecular markers

Eucalyptus grandis is an economically important tree species that is native to the Australian continent and its northern neighbours, where it is grown primarily for its hard wood timber and pulp for paper industries. It is widely grown in tropical countries such as South Africa, Kenya, Angola, Ghana, and Zimbabwe. Five ISSR primers generated 41 scorable polymorphic bands which were used to analyse genetic diversity...

Author(s): D. O. Okun, E. U. Kenya, P.O. Oballa, D. W. Odee and G. M. Muluvi

July 2008

Evaluation of a novel luciferase reporter construct: a positive control plasmid for reporter gene assay

Reporter gene technology has been increasingly important in the post-genomic era to explain human complexity and diversity. The pGL3-Basic vector has been prevalently used as a tool for analyzing cis-acting elements critical for transcriptional mechanisms. In this work, we constructed and evaluated the pGL3-Basic plasmid containing the cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer/promoter aiming to establish a positive control...

Author(s): Tewin Tencomnao, Varaporn Rakkhitawatthana and Kanya Sukhontasing

July 2008

Identification and phylogenetic analysis of a bacterium isolated from the cloaca of Chinese alligator

Wild populations of Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) are on the edge of extinction. Through a release project lunched by the State Forestry Administration (SFA) of China, some captive-bred alligators will be selected and released into the wild to supplement and renew natural populations. Before releasing, health screening protocols on individuals are very necessary. In this paper, bacterium ASC10 was isolated from...

Author(s): Rongrong Ma, Xiaobing Wu, Renping Wang, Chaolin Wang and Jialong Zhu

July 2008

The mutagenic testing of different brands of commonly used insecticides

Insecticides are chemical agents used to control insects, but humans are usually exposed to insecticides and this may have a long term toxicological effects on their health. Different brands of insecticides including BaygonR, MobileR, MorteinR and TotalR were subjected to Ames spot Forward Mutation Assay, using Escherichia coli. The assay was examined for the presence of revertant strains of the organism...

Author(s): A. Akintonwa, O. Awodele, S. O. Olayemi, I. A. Oreagba and O. M. Olaniyi

July 2008

International institute of tropical agriculture plantain and banana programme: An insight into the contributions of farmer-to- farmer extension paradigm

Dissemination of research results by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) had been a major challenge to the Institute as inappropriate dissemination mechanism was revealed as a major constraint to her earlier efforts in disseminating cooking banana technologies between 1990 and 1994. A public-private technology delivery approach (research-farmer-to-farmer extension approach), which allows farmers...

Author(s): B. O. Faturoti, A. E. Agwu, E. M. Igbokwe and A. Tenkouano

July 2008

Isolation of flavonoids from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves with macroporous resins

Flavonoids are major active constituents in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and possess various pharmacological activities. In the present study, the extraction technology and preparative separation of total flavonoids (TFs) in mulberry leaves extracts by macroporous resins were studied systematically, and the column packed with selected resin was used to perform dynamic adsorption and desorption tests to optimize...

Author(s): Jun Wang, Fu An Wu, Hui Zhao, Li Liu and Qiu Sheng Wu

July 2008

Alleviation of osmotic stress of water and salt in germination and seedling growth of triticale with seed priming treatments

Effects of seed priming treatments with 0.5% KH2PO4 (w/v) solution and water were determined on germination and seedling characters of hexaploid triticale (Triticosecale Witm., cv. Presto) in different osmotic potential of NaCl and PEG solutions. Drought and salt osmotic stress conditions were separately created by using PEG 6000 and NaCl, respectively, at different osmotic potentials (-0.45, -0.77, -1.03 and -1.44...

Author(s): Mehmet Yağmur and Diğdem Kaydan

July 2008

Effects of morphogenetic and diurnal variability on the hypericin content in St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.)

This research was conducted to investigate effects of morphogenetic and diurnal variability on the hypericin content of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) populations originating from Turkey for maximum utilization of the active substance in plants. During 2002 and 2003, field trials were conducted at Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, Bursa, Turkey. Samples of bud,...

Author(s): Oya Kaçar, Erdinç Göksu and Nedime Azkan

July 2008

Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Chinese Hickory (Carya cathayensis) kernel ethanol extraction

The kernel of Carya cathayensis Sarg. is a special local product and is widely used as a kind of food in China. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of the kernel including the ability to inhibit the autooxidation of linoleic acid, the reducing capacity, and the scavenging activity on the free radicals were evaluated. The results indicated that a kernel of C. cathayensis has effective...

Author(s): Chenggang Zhu, Xiaoyan Deng, Feng Shi  

July 2008

Rapid micropropagation of three elite Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) varieties by shoot tip culture

Studies were carried out for rapid micropropagation of three sugarcane varieties i.e., HSF-240, CP-77-400 and CPF-237. Shoot tip was used as explant source. Shoot initiation from explant of all three varieties was achieved at 1 mg/l Kin and 0.1 mg/l GA3. For rapid multiplication the regenerated shoots were transferred on liquid Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2% sucrose, supplemented with BAP in combinations with...

Author(s): Sabaz Ali Khan, , Hamid Rashid, M. Fayyaz Chaudhary, Zubeda Chaudhry and Amber Afroz

July 2008

Regeneration of tropical maize lines (Zea mays l.) from mature zygotic embryo through callus initiation

The use of immature zygotic embryos as an explant for maize regeneration has been hampered by the strictly limited suitable duration of immature embryos for culture. In contrast, mature zygotic embryos harvested from dry seeds are ubiquitous. However, generally mature embryos and especially tropical maize genotypes have been considered as the most recalcitrant for tissue culture work. Consequently tropical maize...

Author(s): D. Zerihun Abebe, Wondyifraw Teffera and Jesse S. Machuka

July 2008

Effect of combined application of organic P and inorganic N fertilizers on post harvest quality of carrot

A study was undertaken to assess the effect of combined application of organic-P and inorganic-N fertilizers on post harvest quality of carrot (Daucus carota l.) stored at 1°C and ambient conditions (8.6 - 24.8°C). For the fertilizer treatments, 309 kg orga ha-1 (for P) in combination with each of six rates of urea (0, 68.5, 267.2, 274, 342.5 and 411 kg urea ha-1) was used. Carrot shelf life...

Author(s): Sisay Hailu, Tilahun Seyoum and Nigussie Dechassa

July 2008

Effect of growing medium on early growth and survival of Uapaca kirkiana Müell Arg. seedlings in Malawi

The use of appropriate growing medium has been an important factor influencing growth and survival of seedlings in the nursery. Raising Uapaca kirkianarootstocks from seeds has been a challenge as pencil-size stem thickness is required before grafting can be done. An experiment was carried out with the objective of determining an effective growing medium that ensures survival and rapid growth of U....

Author(s): Jarret Mhango, Festus K. Akinnifesi, Simon A. Mng’omba and G. Sileshi

July 2008

Chemical composition of groundnut, Arachis hypogaea (L) landraces

Groundnut production and utilization in Ghana has tripled in the last decade due to its high nutritive value and the number of uses it can be put into. The chemical quality of seeds of Ghanaian groundnut are different from those of other countries, however, no previous studies has been done. This study was initiated to examine the nutritional quality of 20 groundnut varieties grown in Ghana. Dry samples were examined...

Author(s): Asibuo, James Yaw, Akromah, Richard, Safo-Kantanka, Osei, Adu-Dapaah, Hans Kofi, Ohemeng-Dapaah, Seth and Agyeman, Adelaide

July 2008

Effect of different plant hormones on callus induction in Gymnema sylvestris R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae)

The use of Gymnema sylvestris as an alternative remedy for diabetes was well known from ancient times in India and the plant is valuable for its pharmaceutical properties. The present study describes callus induction of the plant G. sylvestrisusing internodal explants and the influence of different plant hormones like 2,4-D, kinetin, IAA, BAP on the growth of calli. Internodes were proved to be the best...

Author(s):   Amitava Roy, Shayak Ghosh, Madhulina Chaudhuri and P. K. Saha

July 2008

Comparison of live and dead biomass of fungi on decolorization of methyl orange

Decolorization of methyl orange with live and autoclaved biomass fungi were studied. Sixteen different fungi including Fusarium, Trichoderma, Humicola,Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Alternaria and Beauveria were evaluated. The highest decolorization activity was observed with Fusarium acuminatum andHumicola fuscoatra. Decolorization efficiencies of live and...

Author(s): Isil Seyis and Tugba Subasioglu

July 2008

Aerobic biodegradation of a mixture of chlorinated organics in contaminated water

The environmental persistence, toxicity and/or carcinogenicity of chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CAHs) and their potential for bioaccumulation in food chains has made them of serious environmental concern. The frequency of a mixture of these compounds encountered in most contaminated sites has warranted investigation into their fate in contaminated sites. In this study, therefore, the biodegradation of a mixture of...

Author(s): A. O. Olaniran, V. Bhola and B. Pillay

July 2008

The effects of pH and temperature on phosphate and nitrate uptake by wastewater protozoa

The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of pH and temperature on nutrient uptake efficiency of 3 wastewater protozoan isolates (Aspidisca (A), Trachelophyllum (B) and Peranema (C)) that have previously been screened for nutrient uptake ability. The study was carried out in shake flask at pH 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 and incubation temperatures of 25, 30 and 35oC for 96 h. The results...

Author(s): Akpor, O. B., Momba, M. N. B. and Okonkwo, J. O.

July 2008

Evaluation of the chemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil of Citrus reticulata fruit (Tangerine fruit peel) from South West Nigeria

The volatile oil of tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata) was extracted by steam distillation and assessed for antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The volatile oil was tested against some Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi, Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter spp); Gram-positive organisms suchas...

Author(s): Johnson, T. Adelowotan, I. E. Aibinu, E. Adenipekun, A.A. Adepoju-Bello, H. A. B. Coker and T.O. Odugbemi

July 2008

Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

Chlorinated phenols, widely used in industries, are of growing concern owing to their high toxicity, carcinogenicity and wide distribution in industrial wastes. In the present study, one Pseudomonas isolate, identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, was obtained using the enrichment process with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) as a sole carbon source. This isolate was found to be able to degrade various...

Author(s): G.A. Ayoola, O. O. J.  Lin, M. Reddy, V. Moorthi and B. E. Qoma

July 2008

Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds

Mycotoxin contamination of feeds results in economic loss and transmission of toxins in the food chain. Animal feeds, the raw ingredients used in their manufacture, namely, maize, wheat, sunflower seeds, cottonseeds, bagasse, wheaten bran, gluten feed and pet foods from South Africa were surveyed for contaminating mycotoxin-producing fungi and their toxins: aflatoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone and ochratoxins. Toxins...

Author(s): Phakamile T. Mngadi, Roshini Govinden, and Bharti Odhav

July 2008

Evaluating the quality characteristics of kunun produced from dry-milled sorghum

Kunun is a traditional beverage in Nigeria produced by wet milling from sorghum, maize or millet. This work evaluates kunun produced from dry-milled sorghum flour. The sorghum was dehulled, milled and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was steeped for 24 h and mixed with spices to produce kunun and the quality of the resultant kunun was compared with that of kunun manufactured by the wet-milling process. With dry-milling...

Author(s): Adejuyitan, J. A., Adelakun, O. E., Olaniyan S. A. and Popoola, F. I.

July 2008

The effect of heavy metals on peroxidase from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers

Peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7; donor: hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase, POD) are part of a large group of enzymes. In this study, peroxidase, a primer antioxidant enzyme, was partial purified with 2.49 fold and 29.3% efficiency from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis purification steps. The specific activity of enzyme was calculated as 612.1 EU/mg. The substrate...

Author(s): İhsan Güngör Şat

June 2008

Yield and organoleptic characteristics of Suya (an intermediate moisture meat) prepared from three different muscles of a matured bull

High cost of choice meat used in suya production makes the product an exclusive meat for the rich. In order to make suya (an intermediate moisture meat) available and affordable to the common man thereby increasing their animal protein intake, this experiment therefore become imperative. Meat from the semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF) and psoas major (PM) muscles were used for the study. The...

Author(s): Omojola, A. B

June 2008

Isolation and antigenicity evaluation of β-lactoglobulin from buffalo milk

Buffalo β-lactoglobulin in phosphate buffer (0.02 M, pH6.8) was adsorbed on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow gel, and eluted with a linear gradient of NaCl (0-0.5 M) in 0.02 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. A further purification was performed on Sephadex G-75 gel by loading a concentrated and dialyzed fraction of samples containing buffalo β-lactoglobulin from ion-exchange chromatography, and seperating at a flow...

Author(s): X. Li, Z.L Luo, H.B Chen, and Y.S. Cao,

July 2008

Acute and chronic toxicity of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed powder to adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linne 1757)

This experiment determined the toxicity of pawpaw seed powder to adult tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus, the most cultivable fish species in Africa. The 96 h static bioassay experiment was conducted to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) for adult Nile tilapia, to pawpaw seed, Carica papaya. Two hundred live, and apparently healthy O. niloticus measuring 11.5 - 14.6 cm total length and 65.6 -...

Author(s): Ezekiel O. Ayotunde and Benedict O. Ofem

July 2008

Antimicrobial properties of tropical plants against 12 pathogenic bacteria isolated from aquatic organisms

Disk diffusion technique was used to determine the antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of edible tropical plant against 12 clinical and pathogenic bacterial strains isolated from aquatic animals. They were Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Edwardsiella...

Author(s): Lee Seong Wei, Najiah Musa, Chuah Tse Sengm, Wendy Wee and Noor Azhar Mohd Shazili

July 2008

Partial purification and characterization of endo-b-1,4-mannanases from Scopulariopsis candida strains isolated from solar salterns

Scopulariopsis candida strains LMK004 and LMK008 previously isolated from a solar saltern were cultivated in Vogel’s medium supplemented with NaCl and locust bean gum galactomannan as carbon source and inducer for b-mannannase production. S. candida LMK004 produced up to 180 nkat/ml whereas LMK008 produced 116 nkat/ml. These levels dropped significantly when a-cellulose was used as carbon...

Author(s): Mudau, Mabyalwa Maria, Setati, Mathabatha Evodia,

July 2008

Optimization of production of subtilisin in solid substrate fermentation using response surface methodology

Subtilisin (EC 3.4.21.62) is a type of serine protease that is of high commercial importance. It is mainly produced by Bacillus species as an extra cellular enzyme. Subtilisin being stable over a wide range of pH and temperature is exploited as a detergent enzyme and also favoured by its non-specificity. The yield of this enzyme needs to be optimized for cost effective production of subtilisin for...

Author(s):   Varun Bhaskar, Jones Raj T. R., Kandasamy S. K. J., Vijaykumar P. and Anant Achary

July 2008

Head lice infestation in school children of a low socio-economy area of Tabriz city, Iran

Head lice infestation (HLI) caused by Pediculus humanus var capitis (Pediculus capitis) is a world wild public health concern that affects mostly school aged children. HLI does not produce an illness, but it is physically unpleasant and an unbearable social stigma. Over a five months period from July to November, 2006, 2795 school children from a low socio-economy area of Tabriz city enrolled in 13...

Author(s): Mohammad Hassan Hodjati, Navab Mousavi and Mehri Mousavi

July 2008

Comparative haematological changes in experimentally infected Savannah brown goats with Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma vivax

A comparative study of haematological changes in Savannah brown goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma vivax was carried out using thirty (30) goats aged between 20 and 48 months and average weight of 13.00 kg. The parameters determined before and after infection included parasitemia, rectal temperature, weight, PCV, and total plasma protein. The mean weight, rectal...

Author(s): Adeiza, A. A., Maikai, V. A. and Lawal, A.I.