African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12179

Table of Content: 5 February, 2008; 7(3)

February 2008

Selected soil enzymes: Examples of their potential roles in the ecosystem

  Soil enzymes regulate ecosystem functioning and in particular play a key role in nutrient cycling. In this review we briefly summarise potential roles of selected enzymes such as amylase, arylsulphatases, β-glucosidase, cellulose, chitinase, dehydrogenase, phosphatase, protease and urease in the ecosystem. We also highlight areas where further research is needed to increase our understanding of...

Author(s):   Joachim H. J. R. Makoi and Patrick A. Ndakidemi      

February 2008

Macrofungal diversity of Babadağ (Denizli, Turkey)

  Some macrofungi specimens were collected from different localities in Babadağ District (Denizli) between 2005 – 2006 particularly during the months of autumn and spring seasons. As a result of the field and laboratory studies, totally 125 taxa belonging to 70 genera, 40 families and 2 classes have been identified. 19 taxa belong to Ascomycetes, 106 taxa belong...

Author(s):   Aziz Türkoğlu    

February 2008

Actellic 2% dust as pesticide in feed ingredients: Effects on haematological and serum metabolites in growing rabbits

  The study was designed to evaluate the tolerance, survivability, hematological and biochemical indices of weaner rabbits fed diet contaminated with varying levels of Actellic 2% dust. The effects of the pesticide on the clinical state of the animals were also appraised. A uniform diet was compounded from ingredients certified to be apparently pesticide residue-free. This diet was partitioned into 5...

Author(s):   Omoyakhi J. M., Orheruata, A. M. and Osinowo O. A.      

February 2008

Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery to dilated cardiomyopathy patients: A clinical trial

  The impact of intracoronary autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) in patients with DCM (dilated cardiomyopathy) with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was assessed. The study included five DCM patients (age group 20 - 65 years) with ejection fraction (EF) of ≤ 30%. Mononuclear cells (Mean MNC count: 9.16 x 107 and Mean CD34 positive cell count: 3.68 x 105) were infused through...

Author(s):   P. L. N Kaparthi, Gupta Namita, Lakshmi K. Chelluri, V. Surya Prakasa Rao, P. Kantilal Shah, Adavi Vasantha, S. Kamaraju Ratnakar and K.Ravindhranath        

February 2008

Production of gastrodin through biotransformation of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol using hairy root cultures of Datura tatula L.

  Inoculation of leaf sections of Datura tatula L. plants with A4 strain ofAgrobacterium rhizogenes, induced transformed roots. The rol C (root loci) gene of TL region of A. rhizogenes was detected by PCR analyses in hair roots. The conversion of exogenous p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol into p-hydroxy-methyl-phenol-β-D-glucoside (gastrodin) was studied using hairy root cultures of D....

Author(s):   C.X. Peng, Gong J.S., Zhang X.F., M. Zhang and Zheng S.Q.        

February 2008

Antithrombotic/anticoagulant and anticancer activities of selected medicinal plants from South Africa

  1Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa. 2Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193, South Africa.      

Author(s): Nalise Low Ah Kee, Nandipha Mnonopi, Hajierah Davids, Ryno J. Naudéand Carminita L. Frost

February 2008

Nucleotide variation in ATHK1 region of Arabidopsis thaliana and its association study with drought tolerance

  The ATHK1 gene in Arabidopsis encodes a putative histidine kinase that is transcriptionally up-regulated in response to changes in external osmolarity. In this work, we investigated the nucleotide variability of the ATHK1 gene in a sample of 32 core Arabidopsis accessions originating from different ecoclimatic regions and their drought tolerance. The results showed that...

Author(s):   Jian-Jun Zhang, Gang-Ping Hao, Zhong-Yi Wu, Xiu-Hai Zhang, Yong-Qin Wang, Qing Yang, Ming-Qing Cao, Shi-Gui Liu and Cong-Lin Huang        

February 2008

In vitro micro-propagation of endangered ornamental plant-Neotchihatchewia isatidea (Boiss.) Rauschert

  The ornamental plant, Neotchihatchewia isatidea, is an endangered species of Turkey and threatened by complete extinction in the future. Therefore, in vitromultiplication of this species can be valuable for commercial production and germplasm conservation. Immature embryos of N. isatidea were cultured for initiation on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with...

Author(s): Ahmet Gümüşçü, Satı Çöçü, Serkan Uranbey, Arif İpek, Mikail Çalışkanand Neşet Arslan   .  

February 2008

Hydroponic culture of Gladiolus tristis: Application of paclobutrazol for flowering and height control

  Gladiolus tristis (ever-flowering gladiolus) was tested for its potential as a flowering potted plant, using the growth retardant paclobutrazol. The treatments included a control, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg active ingredient (a.i.) per pot and were applied when the longest leaves reached 15 cm. All treatments reduced perpendicular leaf height. Inflorescence heights were significantly affected by...

Author(s):   S. G. Milandri, C. P. Laubscher and P. A. Ndakidemi  

February 2008

In vitro propagation of miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum Daniel) through embryo and nodal cultures

  Miracle berry is an evergreen tropical shrub which modifies sour food to produce a sweet taste. Its propagation is, however, hindered by seed recalcitrance and difficulty of stem to root. Thus in vitro propagation was investigated through embryo and nodal explants using different levels and combinations of auxins and cytokinins in MS medium. Embryo was regenerated in MS medium supplemented with 0.1...

Author(s):       K. E. Ogunsola and C. O. Ilori

February 2008

Sustainable mushroom production in Africa: A case study in Ghana

  wastes as biofertilizers. Fresh fish waste (FFW) and cooked fish waste (CFW) mixed with sawdust from Tryplochyton scleroxylon wood species (Wawa) were made into compost heaps. Control compost from rice bran (CRB) was also prepared. Higher temperatures were recorded from compost heaps prepared from both FFW (38 -52°C) and CFW (37 - 52°C) than from CRB (33 - 45°C); with...

Author(s):   Margaret Atikpo, Oghenekome Onokpise, Michael Abazinge, Clifford Louime, M. Dzomeku, L. Boateng and Bawa Awumbilla      

February 2008

Genetic diversity in Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. (Bignoniaceae), a vulnerable medicinal plant by random amplified polymorphic DNA marker

  Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic diversity in Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent (Bignoniaceae) a vulnerable medicinal plant collected from eight locations in Andhra Pradesh, India. High level of genetic similarity was observed in the collected accessions. Forty random primers, each with 10 bases generated a total of 188 polymorphic bands out of the 387...

Author(s):   Jayaram K. and Prasad M. N. V        

February 2008

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with effects on resistance to flower bud thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) identified in recombinant inbred lines of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

  The first major insect pest of cowpea at reproductive stage is the flower bud thrips (FTh), which, if not controlled, is capable of causing significant grain yield reduction. Breeding for resistance to FTh in cowpea has been hindered by the quantitative nature of the resistance, and the breakdown of resistance under high insect infestation. The purpose of this study was to use molecular markers to identify...

Author(s):   Omo-Ikerodah, E. E., , I. Fawole and C. A. Fatokun      

February 2008

Rapid identification of chicken anemia virus in Nigerian backyard chickens by polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction endonuclease analysis

  Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) has not been routinely diagnosed in other avian species apart from commercial chickens. A sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with restriction endonuclease (RE) analysis was used for the detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Nigeria. Using a pair of primers designed to amplify a 733 bp...

Author(s):   Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu and Daniel Todd      

February 2008

Somatic incompatibility in Agaricus bitorquis (Quel.) Sacc.

  The somatic incompatibility in Agaricus bitorquis was studied using ten wild strains. Heterokaryons from each isolate were all paired with the same unrelated heterokaryon and also paired together in all combinations. Two different types of somatic incompatible interaction were observed lightly or heavily pigmented lines developing between the two isolates. In addition to, some elements and...

Author(s):   Perihan Guler      

February 2008

Source determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of a creek in the Niger Delta region

  Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water and sediment of Ekpan Creek of the Warri River were determined with GC Perkin-Elmer/Clarius 500. Compositional patterns of the PAHs were used to distinguish their sources in the aquatic system. The three diagnostic selected concentration ratios of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon isomer pairs confirmed that the PAHs concentrations in sediment of Ekpan Creek...

Author(s):   Okoro Duke    

February 2008

Fungal treatment of hemp-based pulp and paper mill wastes

  This paper examined the ability of Penicillium camemberti to degrade hemp-based pulp and paper plant bleachery effluents in batch and up-flow column reactor studies. In batch tests, the highest removals for acid-line effluents (67% AOX (adsorbable organic halogens), 44% TOC 8 total organic carbon), 97% color) were obtained with 2 g/l acetate concentration in 10 days. Acid-line and alkali-line...

Author(s):   B. K. Taşeli    

February 2008

Factors affecting yeast growth and protein yield production from orange, plantain and banana wastes processing residues using Candida sp.

  Agricultural residues rich in carbohydrates can be utilized in fermentation proceses to produce microbial protein which in turn can be used to upgrade both human and animal feeds. Studies to determine the factors influencing cell biomass production with Candida sp. using citrus fruit wastes showed that the test strain was capable of meeting its amino acid requirements in culture when supplied with...

Author(s):   A. Adoki    

February 2008

Production and partial characterization of keratinase produced by a microorganism isolated from poultry processing plant wastewater

  A Streptomyces was isolated from poultry plant wastewater, showed high keratinolytic activity when cultured on feather meal medium. Optimum keratinolytic activity was observed at 40oC and pH 8.0. The enzyme also showed to be stable between 40 and 60oC. The keratinolytic activity was not inhibited by EDTA, DMSO and Tween 80. On the other hand, CaCl2, ZnCl2, and BaCl2 slightly inhibited the...

Author(s):   Daniel M. T. Tapia and Maria Lucia Garcia Simões      

February 2008

Cassava starch as an alternative cheap gelling agent for the in vitro micro-propagation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

  The potential of cassava starch as an alternative and cheap gelling agent for potatoin vitro culture micro-propagation media was investigated. A two-factor experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted. Four levels of gelling agents; 10% (w/v) cassava starch, 8% cassava starch mixed with 0.25% agar, 0.8% agar and a liquid medium, were evaluated using three selected Kenyan potato cultivars...

Author(s):   Kuria, P., Demo, P., Nyende, A. B. and Kahangi, E. M.      

February 2008

Biomass potentials of Lophira lanceolata fruit as a renewable energy resource

  Oil was extracted from Lophira lanceolata seeds and some physicochemical properties were examined. The oil yield is promising. Methyl ester derivative which exhibited better fuel properties was produced from the oil. The refractive index, free fatty acid, kinematic viscosity, saponification and iodine values were determined and discussed in relationship to its applications. The energy density...

Author(s):   Samuel Fariku and Maimuna I. Kidah      

February 2008

Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel glutathione S-transferase of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

  A novel glutathione S-transferase has been purified from Bombyx mori larvae using affinity chromatography on a glutathione agarose column. The purified enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE and had a Mr of 28 kDa. Steady state kinetic assays of the enzyme were conducted with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as a substrate. The Km, Vmax, Kcat and Kcat/Km for the...

Author(s):   Cheng Xiang Hou, Zhi Qiang Fu, Byung Rae Jin and Zhong Zheng Gui,