African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 974

Full Length Research Paper

Innovative pathways for enhancing climate change and variability resilience among agro-pastoral communities in semi-arid areas of Kiteto and Kilindi Districts, Tanzania

Henry G. Mung’ong’o
  • Henry G. Mung’ong’o
  • Centre for Climate Change Studies, University of Dar es Salaam, P. O. Box 33453, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Milline J. Mbonile
  • Milline J. Mbonile
  • Institute of Resources Assessment, University of Dar es Salaam, P. O. Box 35091, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Faustin P. Maganga
  • Faustin P. Maganga
  • Department of Geography, College of Social Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, P. O. Box 35049, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 13 January 2019
  •  Accepted: 04 March 2019
  •  Published: 31 May 2019


Climate change and variability threatens food security globally making life uncertain mostly for agro-pastoral communities in semi-arid areas. This has necessitated exploration of designed pathways with potentials to increase resilience among agro-pastoralists. This work investigates agro-pastoralists’ innovative pathways for enhancing resilience to the impacts of climate change and variability in Kiteto and Kilindi districts. Mixed method research approach under correlation case study design was employed. Primary data were collected using household survey which sampled 384 households, Focus group discussion (n=6), in-depth interviews (key informants) and field visits. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used in analyzing and presenting the findings. Majority of the respondents (81%) noted a decline and changes in seasonal rainfall and amount and increase in temperature trends (91.4%) in their areas for the past 30 years linked to reduced livestock production and cereals and pulses crop yields. These findings corroborate that from the Tanzania meteorological data (TMA). About 91.1% of the respondents said the major impacts of climate change and variability are decline in grazing/pasture lands, cultivated lands and water resources causing decreasing number of their livestock and crop productivity, ultimately food insecurity for a decade. To increase resilience, agro-pastoralists developed different innovative pathways, though most are similar. The main innovated pathways were livestock seasonal mobility, construction of traditional water points (Njoro), traditional grazing management system through traditional by-laws for pastures conservation/rotational use, growing of droughts-resistant mixed crops, Maasai traditional constructed water reservoirs (Mboutu), reducing stock numbers by selling, drought-tolerant forage species(cactus plants for Animal’s fodder), keeping mixtures of herds and women transporting water by donkeys from traditional wells/Njoro. Government and other stakeholders are called upon to improve agro-pastoralists’ adaptive capacity and increase households’ food security status in the study areas.


Key words: Agro-pastoralist, climate change, climate variability, pathways, Njoro, Mboutu, Alalili, lopolol, Kiteto District, Kilindi District.