African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007

AJEST Articles in press

Article in Press

Reported driving factors of land-use/cover changes and its mounting consequences in Ethiopia: A Review

Obviously, there is land-use/cover change with multifaceted driving factors and associated adverse impacts out there in different parts of Ethiopia. Evidence from published journals justifies this fact but not yet compiled in a manner to convey information on the trend of change and its criticality with the aim to handle the problems. Thus, filing up all the driving factors and its adverse out come from different corners...

Author(s):Mathewos Muke

Article in Press

Rural Households’ Access to Water Resources Under Climate Impacts Based on Field Evidence in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

The climatic condition in Ethiopia is semi-arid and this has implications especially for rural communities in the country that are largely dependent on surface water. In water scarce areas across four districts in the Tigray region we carried out a survey of 595 households, and held two shared dialogue workshops. In these we examined the following issues: (i) access to water in relation to sources, distances covered,...

Author(s):G. Honor Fagan, Daniel Etongo, Zenawi Zerihun and Kelemewerk Tafere

Article in Press

Functionality and sustainability assessment of small scale water supply schemes in Afar Region, Ethiopia

It is very precious to get clean and enough potable water supply in many parts of the Afar region in Ethiopia. Most of the Afar population living condition is nomadic and cattle based agriculture, hence move from place to place to search hay and food for their cattle. They settle, most of the time, along the periphery of the rivers. Lots of governmental and non-governmental organizations, like Kelem Ethiopia, are...

Author(s):Melese Chanie Shumie

Article in Press

Crude Oil Polluted Soil Remediation Using Poultry Dung (Chicken Manure)

Remediating crude oil polluted soil in developing countries by environment-friendly approach has attracted scientific interest. Sampled crude oil and poultry dung was obtained from oil pit and farm in Warri, Delta State. 500g/kg of crude oil polluted soil was weighed into four different containers labeled A, B, C and D, the soil was amended with the application of sundried poultry manure at various weights of 50g/kg,...

Author(s):Oludele Olusanya Emmanuel, Ogundele Damilola Tope, Odeniyi Kayode , Shoyode Olayinka

Article in Press

A view of road transport in Africa

Transport sector is usually divided into four main modes: road, air, maritime and rail modes. In sub-Sahara Africa, road appears as the dominant mode. Railways were developed during the colonial period but almost abandoned since the independence in most countries. Air transport once seen as sign of economic prosperity and instrument of sovereignty is far from being competitive. Maritime transport is mainly on coastal...

Author(s):B.F. Tchanche

Article in Press

Exergy consumption analysis of the transportation sector of Senegal

Exergy analysis has become widely recognized and adopted as a powerful tool for physical and engineering systems analysis. In this paper, it was applied to transportation modes. Transport is second after the residential sector in Senegal when it comes to energy consumption and relies on imported fossil fuels. In 2013, it consumed around 32 PJ which represented 30% of total energy consumed in the country. Exergy use...

Author(s):B.F. Tchanche

Article in Press

Biomonitoring of dust pollution of road side of Kathmandu valley using Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI)

Biological monitoring and assessment studies due to urban--road pollutants were carried out using Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants. Four plant (leaf) parameters--namely ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, relative water content and leaf extract pH were combined together in a formulation signifying the APTI of plants. APTI was calculated for five different shrub species viz. Bougainvillea glabra, Duranta...

Author(s):Shobha Dhyani, Anjana Devkota, Sushila Devi Shrestha, Pramod Kumar Jha

Article in Press

Abatement of Crude oil Polluted Soils Using Some Agricultural Wastes

This study was on the effect of ameliorated treatment of crude oil-polluted soils on the physicochemical properties of the soil. Top soil (0-25cm depth) was randomly collected from three points bulked to form composite soil sample. Six kilogrammes each of dried soil was weighed into plastic buckets. The soils contained in the plastic buckets were polluted with 0.3 litres of crude oil. The following amendments: groundnut...

Author(s):Agbor R.B., Antai S.P. and Kalu S.E

Article in Press


Concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu, were determined in topsoil collected from Gosa, Sabon-Lugbe, Aco and Lugbe Auto mechanic workshops along airport road, Abuja, Nigeria, using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry method with a view to determining the level of contamination of the areas with the heavy metals. Average values of the heavy metals in (ppm) for all sample locations ( Gosa, Lugbe, Aco and Sabon-Lugbe)...

Author(s):Jibrin, N.A, and Abdullahi, K

Article in Press


Conventional production of platform chemicals from fossil fuel has two major disadvantages. It exerts pressure on the depleting world fossil-fuel resources and posses enormous environmental threat. Lignocellulosic materials such as wood wastes are potential resources for the production of chemicals and biofuels. Forest/Agricultural wastes are cheap, renewable and their conversion to bio-based chemicals contributes to green...

Author(s):Adekunle E A, Ayodele O O, Olorode M. E, Akala A O, Agbejinmi B. D

Article in Press

Evaluation Treatment Performance of Natural Wetland for the Water Quality of Abaya Lake, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

This paper deals with the Physical and Chemical parameters of Abaya Lake water body before and after it outflow through wet Land. Water samples were collected from two stations of Lake Abaya around Lante village and at the south-western end of the Lake after outflow through wetland. Physical and chemical Parameters such as water temperature, alkalinity, total hardness, conductivity, chlorophyll a, total dissolved solids,...

Author(s):Haftu Gebrekiros Alemayehu

Article in Press

Innovative pathways for enhancing Climate Change and Variability resilience among Agro-pastoral communities in Semi-arid areas of Kiteto and Kilindi Districts, Tanzania

Climate change and variability threatens food security globally making life uncertain especially among agro-pastoral communities dwelling in semi-arid areas. This has necessitated the exploration on potentials of designed pathways which increases resilience among agro-pastoralist. This article made an investigation on agro-pastoralists’ innovative pathways for enhancing resilience to the impacts of climate change and...

Author(s):Henry George Mung’ong’o Milline Jethro Mbonile and Faustin P Maganga

Article in Press

Removing iron ions contaminants from groundwater using modified nano-Hydroxyapatite by nano manganese oxide

In this article, we study modified nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp) by nano manganese oxide (Mn3O4) as adsorbent material to remove iron ions from groundwater. Different parameters were studied to option optimum conditions of removing such as contact time, pH, initial concentration, a dosage of adsorbent, agitation speed and temperature. Kinetics studies included first order (R2= 0.915), pseudo-first order (R2 = 0.936), second...

Author(s):Mohammed Abd-El-Aal Ahmed Ayash , Tarek Ahmed Seaf Elnasr, Madiha Hassan Soliman

Article in Press

Assessment of Drinking water quality at Dodowa in the Dangbe West District of the Greater-Accra region, Ghana

Dodowa serves as a major peri-urban community close to the Accra Metropolis with increasing population, urbanization and settlements. Lack of access to basic infrastructural facilities including water and sanitation has hampered the development of the community. Dodowa has irregular access to pipe-borne water therefore the community resort to other means of getting potable water. It is against this background that this...

Author(s):W.E. Arko, I.O.A Hodgson and F.K Nyame

Article in Press

Comparative study of combustible briquettes based on municipal solid waste and residual biomass produced by different processes

A good knowledge of fuel characteristics is a major asset for their acceptability and their diffusion. The present research is intended to be a contribution to a comparative study of the combustible briquettes locally produced using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The physicochemical characterization of the briquettes was carried out by the determination of the moisture content, dry matter, volatile organic matter, fixed...

Author(s):Norbert MANIRAKIZA , Théophile NDIKUMANA and C. Gisèle JUNG

Article in Press

An appraisal of phytoremediation as an alternative and effective remediation technology for crude oil-contaminated soils: A review

The review investigates phytoremediation as an alternative environmentally-friendly method of cleaning and restoring hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Phytoremediation is a ‘green’ technology that exploits the natural ability of green plants to remove, degrade or suppress contaminants in soils, sludges, sediments, surface-water and ground-water in an ecologically-friendly manner. Its processes are stimulated by sunlight and...

Author(s):A. A. Oyedeji, L. Besenyei, J. Kayode and M.A. Fullen

Article in Press

Impact of climate variability and change on crop production and farmers’ adaptation strategies in Lokka Abaya District, Southern Ethiopia

The rain fed crop production is inherently sensitive to climate variability and change. This research aimed to investigate the trend of climate variability and change and examine its impact on rain fed crop production in the Lokka Abaya District. For this purpose, 190 respondents were selected using purposive sampling technique from four villages. To collect data, interview schedule, key informant interview and focus group...

Author(s):Buni Lalego, Tewodros Ayalew and Deribe Kaske

Article in Press

Linking Spatial and Temporal Scales to Socio-economic Drivers of Land Use Land Cover Change

Urban land cover changes represent a response to socioeconomic, political, demographic, and environmental conditions. The aim of the study is to develop a methodology that will integrate socio-economic factors on driving forces generated by residents’ and experts’ opinions in order to provide scientific basis and a broader input for establishing Transition Probability matrix than spatio-temporal input than relying only on...

Author(s):Tasiu Yusuf Idi, Bashir Adamu and Shittu J. Whanda

Article in Press

Effects of water level on plant characteristics in a restored wetland and referenced natural wetland in Wakiso, Uganda

Wetland restoration success is dependent on the likeness of both structure and function of the restored wetland systems comparable to reference sites. Assessing the success of restoration is reliant on the monitoring and evaluation of the restored system overtime as was done with Nakyesanja, a restored wetland, and Kiryagonja, a referenced natural wetland in Wakiso District, Uganda. The objectives of this study were to...

Author(s):Kunan B. Vesselly, Alfonse Opio, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo, Frank Kansiime

Article in Press

Estimation of carbon dioxide emissions from rice field of Muvumba P-8 marshland in Rwanda

Globally wetlands appear as a significant source of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission. Rwanda is facing a new challenge of emission of CO2 gases from the rice fields and there is lack of sufficient data showing how it affects the environment. The objective of this paper is to estimate the CO2 gas emissions in different time of the day to determine maximum and minimum CO2 gas emissions from the rice field. An experiment was...

Author(s):Muthiah Sankaranarayanan, Ave Maria Therese, Ingrid Wesström, Suresh Kumar Pande

Article in Press


BACKGROUND: The study determined the concentrations of lead, arsenic, cadmium, zinc and copper in domestic water samples in four Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. This was with a view of providing information on the quality and safety of domestic waters from wells and boreholes in the study areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred water samples were collected from wells and boreholes in four Local...

Author(s):Happiness Ihechi NJOKU and Omowunmi Sola AGBOOLA

Article in Press

Perceptions of Pastoralists and Agro-Pastoralists Vulnerability to Climate change and Adaptation Response: The Case of Aysaita woreda, Afar Regional State, Northern Ethiopia

This study was conducted in Aysaita, Afar Regional State of Ethiopia. The study used simple random sampling to select 153 respondents in the study area. In addition, focus group discusion in each kebeles were made with 7 members in the group having the elderly, rich, medium and poor men and women included. While secondary data were collected from project report at districts level. The key informant interview included...


Article in Press


ABSTRACT This study shows the effect of adsorbent dosage and contact time of activated carbon produced from palm kernel for adsorption of lead. Investigation shows that adsorption of lead by the activated palm kernel reached a maximum after 132 minutes where 67% of lead in the solution was adsorbed. This occurred at an activated carbon concentration of 0.5g/l. Generally, adsorption rate was shown to increase with increase...

Author(s):Otaraku, I. J. and Undiandeye, J. A.

Article in Press

Solid Waste Management Practices and Challenges: The Case of Halaba Town in Southern Ethiopia

Solid waste, which is a consequence of day-to-day activity of human kind, needs to be managed properly. Due to rapid increase in urbanization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Halaba town is also increasing due to which the town is facing several difficulties in providing proper solid waste management services to its population. Accordingly, the objective of this particular study was to assess...

Author(s):Alamudin Kufa Kedir, Temesgen Eliku and Getachew Demie Gebre

Article in Press

Ecological assessmentand economic valuation of three wetlands in eastern Hararghe, Oromia Regional State Ethiopia.

Globally, wetlands are recognized as the most productive ecosystems due to sustaining a wide range of biodiversity and for providing goods and services to nearby communities. The study was carried out in three wetlands in Ethiopia; namely, Adele, Teneke and Haramaya. The data was collected from January 2016 to May 2016 in the villages which are in proximity to the wetlands to determine the degree of dependency on the...

Author(s):Arayaselassie Abebe Semu and Tesfaye Mulye

Article in Press

Characterization of the development and productivity of Jatropha curcas L. plants according to provenance and tillage in Bargny, Senegal

Among the crops that can potentially be used to provide the raw material needed for liquid biofuel production Jatropha curcas L. is the one that generates most interest in many development projects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the production and development of 3-year-old Jatropha curcas L. seedlings in 2012. The results showed that after three years of planting, subsoiling and provenance have no effect on growth...

Author(s):Barro Lamine , Samba Ndiaye Arona Samba , Diatta Malaїny , Diop Babacar , Akpo Elie Leonard

Article in Press


Iglas and Beswan are the towns in Aligarh district in of Uttar Pradesh, India. These are located along Aligarh- Mathura high way at 24 kms from Aligarh. These are located at 27°43’ N 77°56’ E. It has an average elevation of 178 meters. The town area extends from Karban River (towards Mathura) to old Canal (towards Aligarh).In the present study Groundwater samples were collected from Iglas and Beswan town. The samples were...

Author(s):Harit Priyadarshi, Sarv Priya, Shabber Habib Alvi, Ashish Jain , Sangharsh Rao and Rituraj Singh

Article in Press

Assessment of the Vulnerability of Biophysical and Socio-economic Systems to the Impacts of Climate Change and Variability in Mau Forest Complex, Narok County

This study assessed the vulnerability of biophysical and socio-economic systems to the impacts of climate change and variability with particular emphasis on gender, age and marginalized groups using household survey. The study was carried out within the Mau Forest Complex, Narok County in Kenya where the sample size was calculated based on probability proportional to estimated size. Proportionate stratified multistage...

Author(s):Simeon Oruko Oyieko, Samson Okongo Mabwoga, Simon Ole Seno,Vincent Otieno Owanda

Article in Press

Analysis of Regional Flood frequency and its Socio-economic impact in Ethiopia

Flood is the major catastrophic phenomena that induce a significant impact on human life and property. As seminal papers indicated that it is a common problem in Ethiopia; however, its frequency and magnitude had increased rapidly in the last half century. Methods were developed like Flood frequency curves in order relate magnitude of peak flow with return period. The conventional way of flood frequency analysis was...

Author(s):Berhanu Geremew Sinshaw , Mamaru Ayalew Moges, Agumase kinde Tefera , , Simir Birhan Atanaw , Habtamu Muchie Fenta , Haimanot Atinkut Bazezew , , Daniel Geletaw Eshete , Kassaye Gurebiyaw Legese

Article in Press

Heavy metal pollution in the environment; bivalves as bio-monitors a 50-year review

There has been a steady increase in the quantity and diversity of discharges that reach aquatic environment, both organic and inorganic, either synthesized or mobilized by man as a result of high population growth and development activities. This has led to the appearance of several types of pollution. Inland and coastal waters have been the most affected, since most major cities are located near water bodies. Monitoring...

Author(s):Fred A. Otchere

Article in Press


Ikere forest reserve is a State owned forest estate and has experienced changes in its landscape pattern. Therefore, this study is set to assess the dynamic characteristics of the forest reserve landscape between 1985 and 2017 using remote sensing data and spatial metrics. Landscape of the study area maintained complex patterns of spatial heterogeneity over throughout the years. Forest cover loss to other land cover types...


Article in Press


Kinetics of phosphate adsorption by Ca/Cr Layered double hydroxide (LDH) in a batch reactor was investigated in this study. The kinetic experiments indicated that the sorption of phosphate from the synthetic feed solution by the synthesised LDH was very fast, with over 98% removal being achieved within 5 min of contact. Kinetic modeling of the sorption process to different kinetic models (pseudo first order, pseudo second...

Author(s):Adelagun, Ruth Olubukola Ajoke

Article in Press

Renewable energies Management of World Energy Resources: What Choices for the Future?

The energy enables technical innovations, health, agricultural and transport progress. The economic and social development and the energy production are linked, although some energy-rich countries are poor. Developed countries are the biggest consumers. The energy consumption is increasing with the increase of the world population. Fossil energies are dominant in the consumption. Nuclear energies are often decried because...

Author(s):Gueye Moustapha

Article in Press

Bacteriological Contamination of Groundwater in Relation to Septic Tanks Location in Ashanti Region, Ghana

Water is an indispensable resource to mankind and life in general. Over the world, issues of water scarcity and quality are becoming pronounced with increasing global population, industrialization and urbanization. Developmental activities of man can lead to the deterioration of surface and groundwater. As a result, groundwater has become an important source of water supply throughout the world. This research is very...

Author(s):Jeremiah Kasalku Takal and Jonathan Arthur Quaye-Ballard

Article in Press

Residues of the transformation of halieutics products: an alternative substrate for energy valorization of wastes by methanisation for a local sustainable development (preliminary results)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the biogas productivity potential of residues of the transformation of halieutics products. Experiments was conducted in two digesters of PUXIN model of 20 m3, where the temperature is 35°C. The Multirae analyser was used to know the composition of biogas produced. A gas counter was also used for counting the amount of biogas produced during the experiment. There was also a balloon...

Author(s):N. N. Kebe(), P. A. Fall (), D. Ndiaye (), D. Diouf ()

Article in Press

Solid waste sorting and storage practices in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria: How environment-friendly?

The study investigated solid waste sorting and storage practices in the different activity areas of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. The hospital was stratified into eight major groups. The groups consisted of 101 units, out of which 42 units were areas, where mixture of medical and non-medical waste were produced. The remaining 59 units were areas where only non-medical waste was generated. Using...

Author(s):AFON Abel Omoniyi and AKINPELU Olusegun Peter

Article in Press

Status and implementing strategies of Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Millennium City of Cuttack (Odisha, India)

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) has become an issue of the contemporary times especially a concern in the urban environments of developing countries. Modernization and changing life style is contributing to this issue at large. Various aspects of MSW management in the Millennium City i.e. Cuttack, one of the commercial hubs of Orissa were assessed in order to formulate strategies so that effective management can be done. The...

Author(s):Subhani Rath

Article in Press

Assessment of Physico-chemical Parameters in Ferozpur stream of Kashmir Himalayas: Towards understanding the present status

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters and their dynamics in the Ferozpur stream of Kashmir valley. The investigation revealed that the dynamics of physico-chemical parameters depends on both autochthonous and allochthonous inputs and interactions taking place in the stream. This study was aimed to analyze the stream at various locations based on the physico-chemical parameters as most...


Article in Press


This research paper evaluated the level of effectiveness of facilities management in the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital (ATBUTH) in Bauchi town; the existing scope, strategy, practices & roles, challenges with regard to the effectiveness of their management of facilities, engineering and maintenance services. The state of facilities management in presented in the result of this...


Article in Press


This work is aimed at enlightening the public on the level of contamination of our waters and other aquatic environment. A large number of manufacturing companies prefer to locate their plants in the rural environment where no one queries the treatment of their effluents. This attitude is becoming a common practice which has to be regulated. In this research, Lalupon, a rural setting in Ibadan, Nigeria is no longer a safe...


Article in Press

Bacteriological quality of drinking water sources in rural communities of open defecation free Villages of sire District, South East Ethiopia

Introduction: A high proportion of waterborne disease outbreaks that are most often originating from pathogens, which found in drinking water sources due to fecal contamination. Both developed and developing countries may face the pollution problems of water sources, invariably though they are the most prevalent issues in the third world nations. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the bacteriological...

Author(s):Tesfaye Legesse ,Tadesse Getahun ,Sintayehu Bedada, Shimelis Adugna

Article in Press

Assessment of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water at the source, storage, point of-use, dry and wet season in Damot Sore Woreda, Southern regional state, Ethiopia

Source to in-house and seasonal contamination of drinking-water quality is a persistent problem in developing countries. This study was conducted in Damot Sore Woreda, Southern Ethiopia to examine physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water. In this study, four Kebele administrations were selected by purposive sampling technique. Location map and water quality sampling point were prepared using Arc GIS...

Author(s):Meseret Bekele (MSc) and Mihret Dananto (PhD)

Article in Press

Investigation of Heavy Metals in Water and Potential Tributaries of Gilgel Gibe I Hydroelectric Dam;Pioneer Dam of SW ethiopia

In this study, some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Co) were analysed in the pioneer hydroelectric dam of South West Ethiopian’s of Gilgel Gibe I and its potential tributaries. Five water samples from the dam and four water samples from potential tributaries were collected by systematic random sampling and purposive sampling method respectively. The water Samples and blanks were digested prior to analysis. FAAS were used...

Author(s):Fuad Abduro, Abera Gure (PhD) and Kassim Kedir

Article in Press


The objective of this study was to assess existing participation of Ameya Woreda community in forest resource conservation (2013). Opinion survey, semi-structured interview, personal observation, and focus group discussion were employed to obtain primary and secondary data. 184 samples respondents were contacted in the case obtaining primary data. The data collected from primary sources were analyzed using descriptive...

Author(s):Tezera Teshale Alemu

Article in Press

Microbial succession in a laboratory-scale bioremediation of oily sludge

This study sought to identify microbial succession during a laboratory scale-bioremediation of oily sludge. During the 12 week bioremediation study, samples were obtained, diluted and treated to a cocktail of spread-plating on nutrient, potatoes dextrose and Bushnell Haas agar were employed for heterotrophic, fungal and hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial and fungal count. Tentatively, biochemical, morphologic and microscopic...

Author(s):Ibiene, A.A., Akada, N.A, and Effiong, E.C

Article in Press


The study determined the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the water supply sources at the University of Port Harcourt; as well as employed a triangulated descriptive cross-sectional retrospective survey, to identify the factors that guide consumers’ selection and consumption of drinking-water, and equally assessed their perception of drinking-water quality and its impact on public health. The pH of all the...


Article in Press


Human health and environmental quality are undergoing continuous degradation by the increasing amount of wastes being produced. Although some environmental pollution is as a result of natural causes, most are caused by human activities (anthropogenic). Waste generation is closely linked to population, urbanization and affluence. The Coastal zones constitute some of the world’s most productive areas. The offshore sectors...

Author(s):Aladetohun Nike. Funmilayo

Article in Press


The study was conducted at Enyigba mining area in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria, to evaluate the effect of artisanal mineral mining activities on heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) concentrations and Chemical Properties of soils of Enyigba mining area. Auger Soil Samples (0-20cm) were collected at the four compass directions from zero to 100m and 2500m away from the mine site at 10m intervals. At each sampling...

Author(s):NWOGHA, J. S., OSODOKE, V. E., CHUKWU, L. I., and ANO A. O.

Article in Press

Effects of the Bujagali Hydropower project on major physico-chemical characteristics of Upper Victoria Nile water, Uganda

The Bujagali hydropower project is a 250 megawatt facility that was set up to alleviate power shortages in Uganda. The project was perceived to have negative effects on major physico chemical characteristics of the upper Victoria Nile water. Key water physico chemical parameters monitored biannually in April and September from 2006 to 2015 at the upstream and downstream transects and in the reservoir were dissolved oxygen,...

Author(s):Wanda Fred Masifwa, Amondito Brenda, Moureen Matuha, Henry Ocaya and Godfrey Magezi

Article in Press

Importance of Stakeholder’s Collaboration on Environmental Health in Niger Delta using CSR as a framework

During the past five decades the Nigerian Government generated vast resource from oil revenues from various oil related operations. However, the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has experienced various form of unrest due to the devastation caused by oil drilling in the region ranging through oil spillage, water contamination air pollution and various ecological dilapidations. This study examines and tests sstakeholders...

Author(s):Oduguwa Ade Gorryola

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