African Journal of
Food Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Food Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0794
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJFS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 839

Full Length Research Paper

Biological control of apple blue mold with Candida membranifaciens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

Jalal Gholamnejad*, Hasan Reza Etebarian and Navazallah Sahebani
Department of Plant Protection, Aboureihan Campus, University of Tehran, Iran
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 16 November 2009
  •  Published: 31 January 2010



In this study, two genus of biocontrol yeasts were isolated from healthy apple fruits surface. Three strains of Candida membranfaciens (A2, A4 and A5) and two strains of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (A1 and A7) were evaluated for the control of the blue mold of apple caused by Penicillium expansum. One isolate of P. expansum was used in these experiments. Dual culture, cell free metabolite and volatile test were used for in vitro assays. Yeast strains of two genus inhibited growth of P. expansum, inhibition varied from 20.6 - 61.4%, in dual culture, in volatile metabolite from 57.2 - 89.1% and from 54.6 - 86% in cell free metabolite test. Apple fruit wounds were inoculated with 40 µl of yeast cell suspension (107cell ml-1), and after 24 h, inoculated by P. expansum (105 conidia ml-1). Inoculated apples were incubated at room (20°C) and cold (5°C) temperature. All strains of two genus reduced lesion area at two temperatures. The A2 (C. membranfaciens)was the most effective strain at both temperatures, significantly. Effect of CaCl2mixed with yeast (A1), was evaluated at 20°C. The different concentration of CaCl2reduced the lesion area from 185.07 - 1738.037 mm2 reduction compared to 2452.84 mm2 in control after incubation for 15 days at 20°C. At the same time, the other antagonistic yeast conditions such as yeast concentration and inoculation time were studied, and the best conditions for antagonistic yeast were determined.


Key words: Apple, biocontrol, blue mold, Candida membranfaciensRhodotorula mucilaginosaPenicillium expansum.