African Journal of
Food Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Food Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0794
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJFS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 819

Full Length Research Paper

Determination of key elements by ICP-OES in commercially available infant formulae and baby foods in Saudi Arabia

A. S. Al Khalifa and Dilshad Ahmad*
Department of Food Science and Nutrition College of Food and Agriculture, Post Box: 2460, KSU, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Email: [email protected]

  • Article Number - F07D59025160
  • Vol.4(7), pp. 464 - 468, July 2010
  •  Accepted: 28 June 2010
  •  Published: 31 July 2010



Health risk for infant and toddler is a serious threat in the presence of many key elements in baby foods and infant formulas. Manufactures are important part of the diet for babies. We have analyzed various essential Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn and non essential elements Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb and Sn in 56 samples, collected in different area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Essential elements were analyses and observed the result according to the guidelines proposed by European Union legislation (ECC regulation). Non essential elements were comparable with the set limit by international pediatric guideline of infant formulas. Mercury (Hg) was not detected in any samples whereas Pb and Cd were detected in almost all samples with mean range of 5 ug cd /l and 5 ppm. Sb and Sn were analyzed in 59 and 23% samples in the range of 0.04 and 0.054 ppm. Rusks and biscuits type of food showed a little higher concentration of some elements. Daily intake of elements was calculated on the basis of information specified by the manufacturers of different branded formula and baby food on the containers.


Keywords: Infant formula, baby food, toxic elements, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe.

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