Food self-sufficiency has received attention from many nations with various economic orientations since it has been essential to achieving food security. Others countered that maintaining food self-sufficiency might be expensive relative to the advantages, even if it should be necessary for food security. Moreover, due to extraordinary climate instability and pervasive rural poverty, food insecurity is a bigger challenge now than it has ever been. Therefore, using cross-sectional data gathered from 120 sample families, this study assesses the level of food security among households and its determinants in the Wolaita Zone in Southern Ethiopia. By comparing the total amount of calories available for consumption per adult equivalent to the 2200 kcal minimal level of subsistence required per adult equivalent, the food insecurity status of households was ascertained. To assess the state of food insecurity at the home level, a probit and Heckman models were used. According to the findings, 59.65% of the sample homes in the area experienced food insecurity. Additionally, the findings showed that the most important variables positively connected with food security were literacy, and others. Age, female-headed households, and the dependence-ratio, have had a negative impact. The results ultimately suggest that the majority of households experience food insecurity, which can be improved with the help of institutional investors, government and non-government stockholders, and suitable policy and strategy.
Keywords: Heckman, Probit, calorie, food insecurity, Wolaita, Southern-Ethiopia