Iron (Fe) is a vital element for the reserves of satisfactory health for all living organisms. Itâ€™s needed by the human and animal body for the activity of several enzymes for daily energy and proteins. Bread is one of several sources for Fe. In Iraqi Kurdistan, bread is a staple food which gives the most calories and protein of daily intake compared with other countries. Kurdistanian bread such as Lawasha, Mashini, Samoon, Hawrami, and Tiry mostly are made from high extracted white flour. For determining the concentration of Fe in flour and bread samples, 50 flour and bread samples were collected in Sulaymaniyah city in 2017 and analyzed by ICP-MS for Fe metal. The average and standard deviation of Fe content in Lawasha, Mashini, Samoon, Hawrami and tiry in (mg kg-1) were 13.0Â±5.71, 11.3Â±3.03, 10.0Â±3.25, 21.5Â±9.08 and 18.3Â±6.46 for flours and 17.0Â±8.31, 13.2Â±3.18, 18.2Â±7.68, 20.5Â±5.59 and 26.2Â±8.24 for bread respectively. Estimated intake based on 300g bread consumption is 5.70Â±1.96 mg per person per day. Overall, the results indicate that bread is a good source of Fe and they can supply most daily requirements of Fe for preventing Fe deficiency in the Kurdistan population. However, the presence of Phytic acid and some of the inhibitors may play a negative role in Fe bioavailability and the intake amount.
Keywords: Iron, concentration, bioavailability, flour, Bread, daily intake