African Journal of
History and Culture

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Hist. Cult.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6672
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJHC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 197

Article in Press

Wars Among The Pre-colonial East African Bantu: A Case of Bondei and Digo

Mhando Mashaka Mikidady

  •  Received: 12 October 2021
  •  Accepted: 23 November 2021
Wars have been string, which connects and destroys human relations in the history of many pre-colonial African societies. As part of areas of research interests to historians, scholarly writings were produced describing various war incidences in Africa from pre-colonial to the modern era. Although the widely researched parts which seem to attract many researches attention are that of wars between Africans against western capitalists during the introduction to colonialism and the civil wars in post-independence African countries. To depart from that case, this article focuses on the historical explanations of the pre-colonial Tanganyika Bantu communities’ wars, making the Bondei –Digo pre-colonial war a case study. This article underscores an argument that the occurrence of Milonge war in the late 17th to early 18th century was attributed to the need for the Bondei to defend their land and to end the continuous attacks and aggression done by the Digo people into the Bondei settlements. This compilation has drawn facts via oral history and documentary analysis. The justice–access conceptual framework is used in this paper to guide the pattern of explanations for a meaningful account. In this work, It has been depicted that, the Bondei and Digo are perhaps all the immigrants Bantu from southern Somalia coast. Although the Digo belongs to the Mijikenda Bantu while the Bondei are associated with the Seuta Bantu sub-group. It has also been shown that The Bondei were the earliest inhabitants in the areas along the coast of modern day’s Tanga municipality and the Mkinga district, but were later squeezed out by the Digo to the lower land areas of modern days Muheza district. The ongoing need to acquire more Bondei land and the decisions for the Bondei to defend their settlement is what brought them into a conflict named the Milonge war

Keywords: Milonge War, the Bondei, Digo, Shambaa dynasty