Increasing caesarean section rate is a source of concern to obstetricians due to the attendant increased health risk, its commonest complication is bleeding, which occasionally may be life threatening. Tranexamic acid has recently been investigated as a potentially useful adjunct for the prevention of maternal morbidity. The research aim to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid at reducing blood loss during elective caesarean section. The method used was a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial among women who had elective caesarean section at the Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA) and Mile 4 Hospital Abakaliki. Data analysis was done using statistical Package for Social Science (IBM SPSS) software (version 20, Chicago II, USA). The results from the finding show that mean estimated blood loss was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group (566.78±267.42 ml versus 819.09±348.36 ml, p<0.001). Blood loss >1000 ml was also significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group 5(8.8%) versus 16(27.6%); alternatively, 0.25; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.74; p=0.012. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the need for additional uterotonics. However, the number of patients that had blood transfusion between had no difference and the maternal side effect profile was similar. Intravenous tranexamic acid significantly reduced blood loss at elective caesarean sections. It also reduced the risk of blood loss greater than 1000 ml and the need for additional uterotonics without increasing maternal risks.
Key words: Tranexamic acid, blood loss, elective caesarean section.
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