African Journal of
Pure and Applied Chemistry

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0840
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPAC
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 357

Full Length Research Paper

Phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts of Hyptis spicigera plant

Z. Ladan*
  • Z. Ladan*
  • National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Private Mail Bag 1052, Zaria, Nigeria.
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J. O. Amupitan
  • J. O. Amupitan
  • Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
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O. A. Oyewale
  • O. A. Oyewale
  • Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
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R. G. Ayo
  • R. G. Ayo
  • Division of Agricultural Colleges, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
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E. Temple
  • E. Temple
  • Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
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E. O. Ladan
  • E. O. Ladan
  • National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 04 March 2014
  •  Accepted: 07 May 2014
  •  Published: 31 May 2014

Abstract

The present study reports the screening of phytochemical constituents of the leaf extracts of Hyptis spicigera using hexane, ethylacetate and methanol and the leaf powder of the plant. Qualitative analysis of phytochemical constituents showed the presence of the following secondary metabolites vitannins, carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, quinones, coumarin, terpenoids, resins and cardiac glycosides. The quantitative analysis of total phenolics, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids and flavonoids carried out using standard protocols revealed the presence of flavonoids (8.82%), saponins (6.23%), terpenoids (16.10%), alkaloids (7.55%) and phenolics (20.75%) respectively. Phenolics showed the highest content (20.75%) while saponins (6.23%) gave the least content. The high content of phenolics in the plant showed that H. spicigera plant may contain antioxidant properties and could be a good source of natural antioxidants. Also, the richness in flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and terpenoids in this plant can be correlated with its medicinal properties used by traditional herbal healers in Northern Nigeria.

Key words: Hyptis spicigera, phytochemical screening, secondary metabolites.