African Journal of
Pure and Applied Chemistry

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0840
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPAC
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 368

Full Length Research Paper

Characterization of clays in Odukpani, south eastern Nigeria

V. N. Osabor1, P. C. Okafor1*, K. A. Ibe2 and A. A. Ayi1
  1Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry  University of Calabar, Nigeria. 2Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Nigeria.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 20 April 2009
  •  Published: 31 May 2009



A combination of analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infra red spectral (IR) analysis, energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize clays from Odukpani, Cross River State, Nigeria. The samples were also subjected to physico-chemical tests. The results obtained show that the silicon content was the highest and that of manganese the lowest. The silica (SiO2) content was found to be 47.52% followed by alumina (Al2O3) 34.01%, iron oxide (Fe2O3) 2.38% and trace amounts of other elements such as Ca, Mg, Na and Mn (0.038, 0.188, 1.78 and 0.00%, respectively). The X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay deposits consist predominantly of kaolinite and quartz with trace amounts of illites and biotite minerals. The infra red spectral analysis between 400 and 3700 cm-1 revealed interesting wave numbers and absorption bands. EDAX analysis of the clay samples reveals that Al and Si, were in the ratio of 1:2 whereas other elements like K, Ti and Fe were below detection limits. The thermal analysis revealed thermograms that provided valuable information on the purity of the starting materials and the mode of the reactions of the various clay samples.


Key words: Odukpani clays, atomic absorption spectroscopy, infra-red spectral and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis.