African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2126

Review

Modern approach of treatment on destroyable pathogenicity of malaria parasite: A review article

Sourav Das
  • Sourav Das
  • Guru Nanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Kolkata, India.
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Sabahuddin Siddique
  • Sabahuddin Siddique
  • Patel College of Pharmacy, Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhopal, M.P., India.
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Ahmed M Shehata
  • Ahmed M Shehata
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
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Mohamed A. Shaker
  • Mohamed A. Shaker
  • Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Department, College of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
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Mohi Iqbal Mohammed Abdul
  • Mohi Iqbal Mohammed Abdul
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
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Asis Bala
  • Asis Bala
  • Faculty of Pharmacology and Toxicology at National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education And Research, Hajipur, India.
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Pallab Mandal
  • Pallab Mandal
  • TAAB Biostudy Services, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India.
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Shubhasis Dan
  • Shubhasis Dan
  • TAAB Biostudy Services, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India.
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  •  Received: 14 November 2018
  •  Accepted: 18 December 2018
  •  Published: 22 January 2019

Abstract

Plasmodium is the malaria parasite that completes the life cycle between two different hosts, such as human and Anopheles mosquito. These parasites go through several developmental stages like exo-erythrocytic stage that is absent in Plasmodium falciparum, so relapses do not occur. The drugs which contain three P’s like proguanil, primaquine, and pyrimethamine kill schizonts in the liver. Due to prolonged treatment of high dose of chloroquine, there may be serious side effects named as Bull’s eye maculopathy. Atovaquone is rapidly acting blood schizonticide that acts by collapsing the parasite’s membrane. Artemisinins are the fastest acting drugs against malaria. Mepacrine is an anti malarial drug which concentrates in collagen tissue. Infection by P. falciparum is the most lethal form of malaria, in this case agglutination of the infected RBC occurs and these agglutinised RBCs block the capillary vessels of the internal organs. Tafenoquine is a single dose medication for radical cure of P. vivax malaria. People with an enzyme problem G6PD deficiency can cause severe anaemia. At least two genes affecting red cells which are resistant to P. falciparum are autosomal gene for haemoglobin S (HbS) and the gene linked to sex G6PD variant gene. Anaemia is the main result due to malaria by haemolysis of infected and uninfected erythrocytes, dyserythropoiesis, splenomegaly and depletion of folate stores. Cerebral malaria is the most urgent complication that is manifested by confusion or coma by clusters of parasitized red blood cells to form large size cells of the capillary circulation which adhere to the vascular endothelium and block the circulation causing cerebral hypoxia and resulting to neurological symptoms and diagnosed cerebral malaria. Blackwater fever associated with falciparum malaria is mostly common with individuals that have taken antimalarial treatment irregularly or deficient in G6PD deficiency. Tropical splenomegaly is another symptom in falciparum malaria. HbAS was the genetic variant which associated with protection against malaria incidence and other variants such as alpha thalassemia, G6PD deficiency, polymormhism of genes encoding NOS2A and TNF, as well as protection against uncomplicated malaria.

Key words: Malaria, pathogenicity of malaria, parasite of malaria.